Abies balsamea- Fir Balsam, Has a fresh citrus piney like flavor profile.
Abies spectabilis- Bhutan Fir, used in Chinese medicine
Abies sibirica- Siberian Fir, Used widely in perfumery and as a flavoring in colas.
Acacia- Wattle, The seeds of any of the 120+ species are roasted to produce a spice that is described as chocolate, hazelnut, and coffee like
Acacia coriacea- Desert oak, giant wattle nut, described as being roasted coffee like with strong pork like notes. 1)
Acacia murrayana- Colony wattle, A secondary cultivated source of Wattle
Acacia victoriae- the main commercial source of Wattle
Acorus calamus- Calamus root, hotdog like flavor seldom used as spice
Aframomum citratum- Mbongo
Aframomum corrorima- Korarima, Ethiopian Cardamom
Aframomum danielli- Cameroon Pepper, Grains of Peace, Alligator pepper 3)
Aframomum citratum, or Aframomum exscapum are all also called Alligator pepper.
Aframomum melegueta- Grains of paradise, Alligator pepper
Aframomum subsericeum- Ataiko, Rohojie, compared to Aframomum corrorima with a green cardamom like flavor profile.
Aframomum zambesiacum- Nangawo
Agastache cana- Citronella Hyssop,
Agastache foeniculum- Anise Hyssop,
Agastache mexicana- Lemon Scented Hyssop, Mexican Giant Hyssop,
Agastache rugosa- Korean Mint, Banga, has a complex set of essential oils.
Agastache rupestris- Licorice Mint
Agastache scrophulariifolia- Aromatic Hyssop
Agathosma betulina- Buchu, a South Afrian herb described as minty and black current like
Agathosma crenulata- Buchu, also from South Africa and used for the same purposes.
Agathosma gonaquensis- Gonaqua Buchu
Agathosma serratifolia- Longleaf Buchu, Camphor buchu
Allium- This genus has a huge amount species that have interesting culinary values.
Allium ascalonicum- Shallot
Allium cepa- Onions
Allium sativum- Garlic
Allium schoenoprasum- Chive
Allium ursinum- Ransons, Bear garlic
Allium wallachii- Jimbu
Alpinia caerulea- Australian native ginger, fruits are used as a souring agent, and roots and stems as a mild ginger like spice
Alpinia galanga- Greater Galangal, mostly the root is used but the seed pods called Hong Dou Kou (紅豆蔻), or red cardamom are also used. 5)
Alpinia katsumadai- Violet cardamom, called Cao Dou Kou (草豆蔻) and Xiao Cao Kou (大草蔻) 6) 7) 8)
Alpinia officinarum- Lesser Galangal
Alpinia oxyphylla-Sharpleaf galangal, bitter galangal, Yi Zhi Ren(益智仁) seed pods used. 9)
Alpinia zerumbet- Shell ginger, leaves are used to wrap dumplings, rhizomes and the fruits called Xiao Cao Kou (大草蔻) are used. 10) 11)
Amomum compactum- Round Cardamom, seeds used as a spice in java, young shoots used as a culinary herb as well. 12)
Amomum costatum- or Amomum tsao-ko, is Chinese black cardamom. Called Tsaoko, Cao Guo (草果).
Amomum glabrum 无毛砂仁 13)
Amomum kravanh- White cardamom, common in Thai cooking. Called Bai Dou Kou (白豆蔻).
Amomum longiligulare- called Mo Sha Ren 毛砂仁 14)
Amomum maximum- Java Cardamom, a species native to Java, young flowers eaten, seeds have comparable properties to other black cardamoms.15)16)
Amomum sabulatum- Indian black cardamom
Amomum testaceum- maybe another kind of white cardamom?
Amomum villosum- 香砂仁, this species has woolly pods, not ridged pods. A better name might simply be sha ren (砂仁) as 春砂仁 is used for Wurfbainia villosa which has ridged pods.17) 18)
Amomum xanthioides (Amomum villosum xanthioides) called 壳砂仁
Angelica acutiloba- dāngguī 东洋, Toki,
Angelica archangelica- described as musky, floral, and vegetal. contains cyclopentadecanolide unique natural musk. Main species intended when something is called Angelica or Angelica root. 20)
Angelica atropurpurea- Purple angelica, American Alexanders, masterwort, stems were burnt along with tobacco for smoking
Angelica dahurica- bai zhi 白芷,
Angelica gigas- Dangquai, Korean angelica, seems to be primarily used in medicine
Angelica glauca- Chippe, Gandhrain, Commonly used for its essential oil. The roots are used as a spice and it is used to flavor liqueur.
Angelica keiskei- Ashitaba, all parts are widely used in japan as a flavoring agent and vegetable.
Aralia californica- Elk Clover, California Spikenard, used to produce herbal flavors
Aralia cordata- Japanese Spikenard, used as a vegetable and for its unusual flavored resin.
Aralia elata- Japanese Angelica Tree, used in a similar manner to Aralia cordata
Aralia nudicaulis- False Sarsaparilla, Wild Sarsaparilla, a temperate growing used for flavoring that is described as similar to Smilax species.
Araucaria angustifolia- Araucaria nuts
Araucaria araucana- Araucaria nuts
Araucaria bidwillii- Bunya nuts, the nuts of this conifer are aged and eaten, having a complex blue cheese like scent and flavor.
Areca catechu- Areca nut, betel nut,
Armoracia rusticana- Horseradish
Artemisia- this genus has a huge amount of herbs that are used for mostly bitter herbal flavoring.
Artemisia absinthium- Woodworm
Artemisia annua- Sweet woodworm
Artemisia abrotanum- Southernwood
Artemisia dracunculus- Tarragon
Artemisia papposa- Owyhee Artemisia pontica- Little wormwood, is the primary flavoring of Absinthe.
Artemisia princeps- Japanese mugwort, used to make a strong green coloration in pasteries, it also imparts an herbal flavor.
Artemisia verlotiorum- Chinese mugwort
Artemisia vulgaris- Mugwort
Asarum canadense- Canadian wild ginger, all members of Asarum contain some aristolochic acid, which is toxic, making consuming them controversial.
Asarum caudatum- Western wild ginger, historically consumed by the native people of Oregonas a spice.
Asarum europaeum- Hazelwort, asarabacca, European wild ginger, a controversially edible rhizome.
Asarum hartwegii- Hartweg's wild ginger, grown in California for its ginger like scent.
Asarum maximum- Described as hiving the distinct scent of mushrooms
Asarum splendens- Chinese wild ginger
Backhousia angustifolia- Curry myrtle
Backhousia citriodora- Lemon myrtle, an Australian spice that has a strong lemon flavor, comparable to lemon verbena.
Backhousia leptopetala- Turpentine myrtle
Backhousia myrtifolia- Cinnamon myrtle
Betula lenta- Sweet Birch, Cherry Birch, Spice Birch, Bark is used as a wintergreen like spice, sap is used to make a sugar syrup.
Betula nigra- Black Birch, River Birch, leaves and bark used for essential oil content
Bixa orellana- Annatto, Achiote
Boronia citrata- Lemon Boronia
Boronia citriodora- Lemon Scented Boronia
Boronia crenulata- Aniseed Boronia
Boronia megastigma- Scented Boronia, a flower essence is made with a flavor similar to violets or orris.
Boronia safrolifera- Sassafras Boronia.
Boronia serrulata- Rose Boronia
Brassica nigra- Black mustard seeds, one of the two main species used to make commercial mustard pastes.
Buchanania lanzan- Chironji, Charoli, wild almond, the seeds have an almond flavor and are used in a similar manner to almond seeds.
Bunium bulbocastanum- Black cumin, seems to be native closer to Europe then B. persicum.
Bunium persicum- Black cumin, Kara Jeera or Shah Jeera, also called Elwendia persica, an extreamly underappreciated spice similar to cumin and caraway.
Cardamoms- Essay on the complexity of the various genera of cardamoms (Aframomum, Alpinia, Amomum,and Elettaria)
Calluna vulgaris - Heather, brewing herb, described as lavender like, bitter and complex minty
Canarium album- Chinese white olive
Canarium luzonicum- Elemi, a complex oil that smells of fruit and turpentine
Canarium muelleri- Mangobark
Canarium odontophyllum- Dabai, another Chinese olive like fruit
Canarium ovatum- Pili Nut
Canarium pimela- Chinese black olive
Canarium schweinfurthii- African olive, a secondary source of Elemi oil
Capsella bursa-pastoris- Shepherd's purse, member of the mustard family it has a peppery-mustard like flavor to the seeds and leaves.
Carthamus tinctorius- Safflower, a strong yellow to red dye is produced from the flower petals which is used as an alternative to saffron or turmeric.
Carya cathayensis- Chinese hickory, This is the primary species of hickory eaten in East Asia
Carya illinoinensis- Pecan
Carya laciniosa- Shellbark Hickory, this is the primary species eaten for hickory nuts in North America.
Carya ovalis- Spicebark Hickory, red hickory,
Carya ovata- Shagbark Hickory, sweet hickory, the bark is used to flavor spirits and syrups imparting a smokey oak like, maple like flavor profile
Carya tomentosa- Mockernut hickory, hognut, This is the primary hickory species thats wood is used for smoking.
Celosia argentea var. cristata- Cockscomb, used to produce bright red and purple colors to dye food.
Chamaenerion angustifolium- Ivan Chai, Fireweed, Willowherb, Leaves are used as a tea like drink in Russia, roots and shoots are also eaten.
Chrozophora tinctoria- Turnsole, Giradol, Dyers Croton, Used as a blue- red dye in foods, especially desserts.
Cichorium endivia- Endive, chicory, a bitter and herbal salad green, often sued as a base for dishes where the stiff leaves can be used as a vessel to hold other foods.
Cichorium intybus- Chicory, chicory root, roots are commonly roasted and ground to make a coffee flavored drink, it is often added to coffee to enhance the flavor.
Cichorium pumilum- another edible species of chicory.
Cinnamodendron corticosum- Used as a cinnamon like spice in Jamaica.
Cinnamomum burmannii- Indonesian Cinnamon, for a brakedown of species see the Gernot 28)
Cinnamomum camphora- Camphor
Cinnamomum cassia- Cassia
Cinnamomum cebuense- Cebu Cinnamon, Filipino Cinnamon, \\29)
Cinnamomum citriodorum- Malabar Cinnamon
Cinnamomum cullilawan- Lawang 30) 31) 32)
Cinnamomum glaucescens- sugandha kokila, berries used 33)
Cinnamomum malabatrum- A species of cinnamon used in a similar way to tamala, the bark is also used.
Cinnamomum mercadoi- Kalingag, primary species traditionally used in Filipino cooking. Described as having a menthol and safrol flavor profile.
Cinnamomum mindaenense- Mana, Mindanao Cinnamon, flavor profile unknown.
Cinnamomum oliveri- Australian cinnamon species that has a high safrole content along with eugenol and camphor.
Cinnamomum osmophloeum- Pseudocinnamomum
Cinnamomum ovalifolium- wild cinnamon, wal kurundu
Cinnamomum tamala- Indian Bay Leaf
Cinnamomum loureiroi- Saigon or Vietnamese Cinnamon
Cinnamomum verum- Sri Lankan or Ceylon Cinnamon
Cinnamomum zeylanicum- this is a synonym of Cinnamomum verum
Cinnamosma fragrans- Saro, False sandalwood, greenwood, used and described as similar to cinnamon.
Citrus- On the spectacular amount of citrus species that can be used as spices.
Citrus aurantifolia- Lime 34)
Citrus australasica- Finger Lime
Citrus australis- Round Lime, another Australian species
Citrus bergamia- Bergamot 35)
Citrus glauca- Desert Lime, an Australian species
Citrus hystrix- Makrut, Thai lime leaf this citrus is unique in the leaves are directly used as a spice as well as the fruits.
Citrus medica- Citron
Citrus sinensis- Orange
Citrus limon- Lemon
Clausena anisata- Perdepis, Horsewood, described as having a strong anise like flavor.
Clausena anisum-olens- Kalumata, Anis, Kayumanis (not to be confused for the Bahasa name for cinnamon), A Filipino tree that has a strong anise like aroma.
Clausena excavata- Cama, described as being similar in scent to curry leaves. Fruits have an anise like flavor.
Clinopodium brownei- Browne's savory
Clinopodium douglasii- Yerba Buena, a name in common with several other herbs.
Clinopodium menthifolium- Wood Calamint
Clinopodium nepeta- Lesser Calamint
Clinopodium vimineum- Puerto Rican Savory, Herba Buena
Clinopodium vulgare- Wild basil
Clitoria ternatea- Blue butterfly pea, used to dye foods a vibrant blue-purple color.
Conocephalum conicum- Scented Liverwort, there are 3 species associated with having a scent with unknown margins in chemotype between them. 39)
Coreopsis tinctoria- Kunlun Chrysanthemum, Plains coreopsis, calliopsis
Coriandrum sativum- Coriander, cilantro
Crithmum maritimum- Rock Samphire, Sea Fennel, tastes of complex herbal flavor that is spicy, dill and fennel like.
Croton eluteria- Cascarilla, used as a flavor and bittering agent in Campari and Vermouth.
Cryptocaria massoia- Massoia
Cucurbita pepo- Melon Seeds, commercial melon seeds
Cuminum cyminum- Cumin, the only culinary member of its genus
Curcuma amada- Mango Turmeric, named after the sour fruity smell of the rhizomes. also known as Curcuma mangga. 41)
Curcuma angustifolia- East Indian Arrowroot, the rhizomes are used as a culinary vegetable.
Curcuma aromatica- Wild Turmeric.
Curcuma australasica- Cape York Turmeric, the rhizomes are eaten as a root vegetable in Australia.
Curcuma caesia- Black Turmeric
Curcuma comosa- Widely used for medicinal perposes, the essential oils have potential as a food flavoring, culinary palatability is unknown.
Curcuma longa- Turmeric
Curcuma zanthorrhiza- Temulawak, Javanese ginger, 42)
Curcuma zedoaria- Zedoary
Cymbopogon- The whole genera is edible, most having a citrusy flavor and scent.
Cymbopogon citratus- Lemongrass
Cymbopogon flexuosus- East Indian Lemongrass 43)
Cymbopogon martini- Palmarosa, Gingergrass, varies from roselike to spicy and herbal
Cymbopogon nardus- Citronella, source of commercial citronella oil
Cymbopogon refractus- Barbed wire grass, used as an herb in Australia. 44)
Cymbopogon schoenanthus- Described as minty and lemony
Cyperus articulatus- jointed flatsedge, priprioca, the roots are used as a earthy flavoring and red colorant, used as a starch and thickening agent in drinks.
Cyperus bulbosus- Australian bush onion, used in a similar manner to Cyperus articulatus.
Cyperus esculentus- Tiger nut, the tubers are edible and used as a nutty flavoring and as a starch source.
Cyperus longus- English Galingale, Sweet Galangale, Unknown flavor profile, tubers once used to approximate the flavor and medicinal qualities of galangal.
Cyperus rotundus- Used as a bitter flavoring.
Cyperus scariosus- Cypriol, mostly used for perfume but can be used to impart a deep earth flavor, comparable to patchouli.
Dendrobium nobile- a controversial tea is made from the dried flowers, it has a soft green floral flavor, not all active compounds are understood.
Descurainia sophia- Seeds are used as a gelling agent similar to basil seeds.
Dioscorea polystachya- The flowers are described as having a cinnamon scent to them,
Ditaxis heterantha- Azafran, Mexican Saffron, Seeds produce a strong yellow dye used similar to saffron and turmeric. Closely related to safflower.
Dodonaea triquetra- Common Hopbush, Australlian Hopbush, seed pods used as a hop substitute.
Dodonaea viscosa- Hopbush, Asian Hopbush, used in medicine practices across Asia, used as a hop substitute.
Eriodictyon californicum- Yerba Buena, Yerba Santa, Mountain balm, the plant contains taste modifying compounds that effect the perception of bitter flavors, similar to miracle berries.
Eriodictyon crassifolium- Thickleaf yerba santa, Described as rank
Etlingera elatior- Bongkot, Bunga, Torch ginger, flowers used in a similar manner to Myoga. Rhizome is also used 47)
Etlingera fulgens- Used as a substitute for torch ginger
Etlingera maingayi- Used as a substitute for torch ginger
Ferula assa-foetida- Hing, Asafetida
Ferula communis- Laser, Giant fennel,
Ferula cypria- Cyprus Fennel,
Ferula gummosa- Galbanum
Ferula hermonis- Zallouh
Ferula moschata- Sumbul, Muskroot,
Ferula persica- Sagapenum
Ferula tingitana- African ammoniacum
Silphium also known as laserpicium is likely a species of Ferula
Galinsoga parviflora- Guasca, a unusually flavored herb, described as tasting like artichoke heart, used for classic dishes in Columbia
Galinsoga quadriradiata- Used in a similar manner as parviflora, but the leaves are hairy
Galium odoratum- Woodruff, the leaves and stems are high in coumarin giving it a flavor similar to mahaleb and tonka beans.
Garcinia gummi-gutta- Frequently called Garcinia cambodge- Kudampuli, korakka puli, Kudampuli, exceedingly sour, smokey and fermented tasting.
Garcinia indica- Kokum, the fruit husks are used as a fruity-souring agent that is often compared to tamarind also used as a culinary red dye.
Garcinia quaesita- Another source of korakkai puli, also called Goraka, frequently confused/interchangeable with Garcinia gummi-gutta
Gaultheria procumbens- Wintergreen. Several other members of the genus also contain methyl salicylate at very high levels and have an almost identical flavor.
Geum- Various species in this genus, all called Avens and Bonnet, were used to impart a Eugenol note to food before the wide availability of cloves.
Geum urbanum- Avens, Bonnet, Colewort, St. Benedict's herb. used for its roots which have Eugenol in them.
Glechoma hederacea- Alehoof, Creeping Charlie, used as a flavoring agent in beer prior to the use of hops, also used as a salad green and in cheese.
Glycosmis pentaphylla- Gin berry, The seeds can be used as an herbaceous-herbal tasting spice.
Guizotia abyssinica- Nyjer Seeds, Niger seed, similar to sunflower seeds, toasted and used as a paste for flavoring.
Helianthus- All species of helianthus can make edible seeds that varyingly resemble sunflower seeds.
Helianthus annuus- The common sunflower, this is the dominate species used to make commercial sunflower seeds and oil.
Helianthus ciliaris- Yerba Parda, Texas Blueweed
Helianthus resinosus- Resindot Sunflower
Helianthus tuberosus- Jerusalem Artichoke, Sunchoke, this species is notable in that the tubers are eaten.
Hemidesmus indicus- Indian Sarsaparilla, used as a flavoring in various carbonated drinks and candy.
Heracleum maximum- Indian celery, the young greens and seeds are eaten as a flavoring in the northwestern United States.
Heracleum persicum- Golpar, sometimes called angelica seed(an unrelated species), flavor is highly unique, resentment of Rue and angelica root. 52)
Heracleum sphondylium- Common Hogweed, Cow parsnip, the seeds have a flavor that resembles green cardamom. 53)
Houttuynia cordata- Rap ka, chameleon herb, copper herb, the leaves and rhizomes are eaten
Hyssopus officinalis- Hyssop,
Ilex, only these 4 species are confirmed to be edible as far as I know, all other species are likely highly toxic.
Ilex guayusa- Guayusa, widely consumed in South America especially along the Andes mountain range.
Ilex kaushue- Kuding, an overwhelmingly bittering agent that also contains a large amount of caffeine.
Ilex paraguariensis- Yerba Mate, another common South American drink that is used in a similar way to tea.
Ilex vomitoria- Yaupon, Cassina, a North American species also used to make a caffeinated tea like drink, has a malty-herbal complex flavor
Illicium anisatum- Is a highly toxic relavtive to star anise that can even have a similar spiced scent. All other members in the genus Illicium except verum are toxic.
Illicium verum- Star Anise
Juglans ailantifolia- Japanese Walnut, Heartnut
Juglans cinerea Butternut
Juglans neotropica Andean Walnut, nogal
Juglans nigra Eastern black walnut, Black Walnut
Juglans regia Persian walnut, English Walnut
Juniperus communis- Common juniper, the cones are used as a bitter coniferous flavor.
Juniperus monosperma- Cones are traditionally eaten by the Navajo
Juniperus virginiana- American juniper, used the same as juniper berries.
Kaempferia galanga- Kencur, sand ginger, a camphorous and medicinal member of the ginger family.
Kaempferia parviflora- Thai black ginger, Krachai dum, used much like kencur, considered a aphrodisiac.
Kunzea ambigua- White Kunzea, a spice with a similarity to Callistemon or Melaleuca
Kunzea muelleri- Described as rosemary like.56)
Kunzea pomifera- Muntries, berries and leaves are used as a spice. 57)
Kunzea robusta- Manuka, leaves are used to make essential oil, close to the flavor of tea tree.
Lantana- though many species have strong lemony and herbal scents, all species are poisonous as far as I know.
Laurus nobilis- Bay Laurel
Lepidium- Almost all species of Lepidium are edible, called peppercress, peppergrass, and pepperwort. Part of the mustard family they have a peppery-mustard flavor to the seeds and leaves.
Lepidium latifolium- Dittander, perennial pepperweed,broadleaved pepperwort.
Lepidium meyenii- Maca, the root is used to make a musty tasting spice as well as a medicine
Lepidium sativum- Garden Cress, used as a peppery mustard like leaf vegetable
Leonurus cardiaca- Motherwort, lions tail,
Leonurus japonicus- Chinese Motherwort,
Leonurus sibiricus- Siberian Motherwort, honeyweed, many species of motherwort seem to be high in alkaloids and likely have psychoactive effects.
Leptotes bicolor- A relative of vanilla that also has flavorful seed pods.
Levisticum officinale- Lovage
Limnophila aromatica- Rice patty herb, Rau om, another highly underappreciated herb
Lippia abyssinica- Koseret, Widely used in Ethiopia it has a minty eucalyptus like flavor.
Lippia alba- 62)
Lippia citriodora- Lemon Verbena.
Lippia graveolens- Mexican Oregano
Lippia micromera- Spanish Thyme, used in the Caribbean much like Mexican Oregano.
Lippia palmeri- Xomcahiift
Lodoicea maldivica- Coco de mer
Mangifera altissima- Pahutan
Mangifera caesia- Jack, White Mango, Binjai
Mangifera casturi- Kalimantan Mango, Kasturi
Mangifera foetida- Horse Mango, Malmut, Limus, Bachang, fruits eaten pickled.
Mangifera indica- Mango, Amchur, tropical fruity tasting souring agent.
Mangifera laurina- Mangga Kopyor
Mangifera odorata- Kwini
Mangifera pajang- Bambangan
Mangifera sylvatica- Himalayan mango, Pickling Mango
Mangifera zeylanica- Sri Lanka Wild Mango
Magnolias- Essay on the various magnolia species.
Magnolia biondii- Buds are used as a spice and medicine. 65)
Magnolia denudata- Buds are used as a spice and medicine.
Magnolia grandiflora- the flowers and buds are used to make a floral lemon flavor.
Magnolia hypoleuca- Used in Japan as a spice, with leaves being used to wrap food and also ground and added to food. used to make hoba miso. 66)
Magnolia mexicana- Flowers used as well as young leaves. 67)
Magnolia obovata- Used in Japan as a spice, with leaves being used to wrap food and also ground and added to food. used to make hoba miso.
Magnolia sprengeri- Buds are used as a spice and medicine.
Mint- There are a huge amount of minty plants
Mentha aquatica- Water Mint.
Mentha aquatica var. citrata- Bergamot Mint, Orange Mint, Eau de Cologne mint. Very high in linalyl acetate and linalool. Sometimes called Mentha × piperita f. citrata
Mentha australis- River Mint
Mentha diemenica- Slender Mint
entha × gracilis- Ginger Mint
Mentha longifolia- Horse Mint
Mentha × piperita- Peppermint, Chocolate Mint
Mentha pulegium- Pennyroyal, notable for its historic uses and unusually high levels of pulegone, a toxic compound, it is not recommended to consume Pennyroyal.
Mentha requienii- Corsican Mint, used as the flavorant of Crème de Menthe
Mentha saturioides- 70)
Mentha spicata- Spearmint, Yerba Buena.
Mentha suaveolens- Apple Mint
Monarda citriodora- lemon beebalm, lemon mint
Monarda clinopodia- white bergamot, basil beebalm
Monarda clinopodioides- basil beebalm
Monarda didyma- Oswego tea, fragrant balm
Monarda fistulosa- Wild bergamot, beebalm, tastes like caraway and thyme and not much like bergamot citrus.
Monarda punctata- spotted beebalm, thyme beebalm
Mondia whitei- says its a spice in Africa.. dubious
Myristica argentea- Long nutmeg, Macassar nutmeg, horse nutmeg, used as a nutmeg replacement.
Myristica cagayanensis- used in Chinese medicine 73)
Myristica fatua- Used as an replacement for nutmeg
Myristica fragrans- True nutmeg and Mace
Myristica guatteriifolia- Used in Chinese medicine 74)
Myristica impressinerva- unknown 75)
Myristica iners– Unknown 76)
Myristica insipida- Australian spice similar to nutmeg
Myristica malabarica- Kattujathi, Rampatri, Malabar Nutmeg, Bombay mace, a native to India with similar properties to nutmeg and mace, likely unique
Myristica malaccensis- Unknown 77)
Myristica simiarum- Used in Chinese medicine. 78)
Myristica speciosa- Used as an replacement for nutmeg
Myristica succedanea- Batjang Nutmeg, used as a replacement for nutmeg
Myristica umbellata- Unknown 79)
Myristica yunnanensis- 80) 81)
Myrocarpus fastigiatus- Cabreuva, an underappreciated spicy woody flavor.
Ocimum × africanum- Lemon basil, a cross between O. americanum and O. basilicum
Ocimum basilicum- Sweet Basil, common European basil
Ocimum campechianum- 82)
Ocimum × citriodorum- Lemon Basil, same as Ocimum × africanum.
Ocimum gratissimum- Clove basil, scent leaves, commonly used in West African cooking.
Ocimum kilimandscharicum- Camphor Basil
Ocimum kilimandscharicum × basilicum- African Blue basil, an odd cross that behaves as a perennial.
Ocimum minimum- mini Basil, Bush basil
Ocimum tenuiflorum- Holy Basil
Ocotea pretiosa- South american cinnamon, these trees are describes as having bark with a cinnamon taste
Ocotea quixos- South american cinnamon, these trees are describes as having bark with a cinnamon taste
Ocotea sassafras- The bark is high in safrole.
Origanum dictamnus- Dittany of Crete, Hop Marjoram.
Origanum majorana- Marjoram, Sweet Marjoram.
Origanum onites- Ellinikí Rίgani, Pot Marjoram, Cretan oregano.
Origanum rotundifolium- Round Leaf Oregano.
Origanum syriacum- Zaatar, Za'atar.
Origanum vulgare- Oregano, also called wild Zaatar.
Osmanthus fragrans- Osmanthus, the flowers are used to impart a strong floral-apricot flavor.
Oxalis acetosella- Common wood sorrel
Oxalis articulata- Pink wood sorrel, Chari amilo, Netho khatta saag, high in ascorbic acid
Oxalis corniculata- Creeping wood sorrel
Oxalis enneaphylla- Scurvy-grass sorrel, contains ascorbic acid
Oxalis montana- Mountain woodsorrel
Oxalis pes-caprae- Sourgrass, Bermuda sorrel, buttercup oxalis, Cape sorrel, widespread species, the flower stems are commonly sucked on for their sour flavor.
Oxalis stricta- Common oxalis, common yellow woodsorrel, lemon clover, a short growing widespread species of oxalis, commonly found in lawns.
Oxalis tuberosa- Oca, Uqa, The roots are eaten as a starchy vegetable and often have an unusual sour character due to the oxalic acid content common across the genus.
Pandanus amaryllifolius- Pandan leaves, used to impart a specific sweet vanilla-bread like flavor and often a green coloration.
Pandanus julianettii- Karuka, pandan nut, this species is unusual as the seeds are roasted and used much like other nuts.
Pandanus odoratissimus- Kewra, The flowers are used in a water form much like rose water and orange blossom water.
Pandanus odorifer- another name for Kewra, same species.
Pandanus tectorius- thatch screwpine, less aromatic, but still scented leaves.
Pandanus utilis- Common screwpine, less aromatic, but still scented leaves.
Papaver hybridum- An unknown species of poppy described by Pliny the Elder, included only in the historical record.
Papaver orientale- Oriental poppy, used for seeds
Papaver rhoeas- Intermediate poppy, used for seeds
Papaver somniferum- Poppy seeds.
Parmelia perlata- Dagad Phool, Black stone flower, A rock lichen used as an earthy flavored spice. Very mild in intensity, similar in some ways to oakmoss.
Parmotrema perlatum- Kalpasi, quite unusual as its a lichen used as a enigmatic spice widely in India.
Pastinaca sativa- Parsnip
Perilla frutescens- Perilla, Shiso, tía tô, deulkkae, kkaennip, one of the most underappreciated leafy herbs.
Petroselinum crispum- Parsley
Persicaria hydropiper- Tade, Japense water pepper,
Persicaria hydropiperoides- False Water pepper
Persicaria minor- Kesum, used in Malaysia in a similar manner to Vietnamese Coriander.
Persicaria odorata- rau răm, Vietnamese coriander, Laksa mint,
Persicaria tinctoria- Chinese / Japanese Indigo, Used as a source of Indigo dye before the introduction of Indigofera species.
Peumus boldus- Boldo leaves, one of the most overlooked spices
Phyla dulcis- Aztec Sweet Herb, has a strong sweetening effect.
Picea mariana- Black Spruce, Used to make spruce beer and rootbeer, the most widely used species of spruce.
Picea pungens- Colorado Blue Spruce, used in flavoring
Picea rubens- Red Spruce, used in rootbeer production
Picea sitchensis- Sitka Spruce, Used in rootbeer production
Pipers- Essay on the various species of pepper in the genus Piper.
Piper aduncum- Matico, spiked pepper, leaves and fruits are used, often compared to long pepper.
Piper auritum- Hoja Santa, rootbeer leaf, the leaves are essential to mole verde and used and impart a safrole heavy rootbeer like flavor.
Piper betle- Betel leaves, used as a stimulant as well as a spice.
Piper borbonense- Voatsiperifery, similar to cubeb.
Piper capense- African long pepper, timiz, commonoly used in Ethiopia.
Piper chaba- Choi Jhal, the roots, leaves and stems are used for their extreme piquant pungency.
Piper cubeba- Cubeb
Piper excelsum- Kawakawa, intermediate between pepper and Kava, roots, leaves, and berries are used as a bitter spice.
Piper guineense- Azizi pepper, Ashanti pepper, both the fruits and leaves are used, i t is often compared to cubeb, essential to many African dishes. 88) 89) 90) 91)
Piper hooglandii- An Australian island (Lord Howe Island) species that is reported to be used like Kavakava, it also has pungent berries.
Piper kadsura- Japanese pepper, leaves and fruits used as a bitter spice.
Piper marginatum- Anisi Wiwiri, Anise pepper, species grown in Suriname with leaves used for flavor use,described as similar to anise 92)
Piper methysticum- Kavakava, the roots and leaves are occasionally used as a spice.
Piper mullesua- Assam pepper, 93)
Piper nigrum- Black pepper
Piper retrofractum- Indonesian Long Pepper 94)
Piper sanctum- Another name for Hoja Santa Piper auritum
Piper ribisioides- Pepper Root, Pepper wood, Chili Wood, the Roots and peppercorns of this Piper species are ground and used as a spice,. 95)
Piper sarmentosum- Lolot, the leaves are used as a spice in southeast asian cooking.
Piper longum- Long Pepper, pipli, the roots are called Ganthoda.
Platycodon grandiflorus- Doraji, Kikyō, Chinese Bellflower, the roots are used in Korea as a vegetable and for their pungent flavor.
Polypodium glycyrrhiza- Licorice fern, sweet root, Contains a compound that is 500 times sweeter then sugar, has a bitter-sweet earthy flavor profile
Polypodium vulgare- Common Polypody, sweet root, described as similar to glycyrrhiza.
Porophyllum gracile- Odora, Xtisil
Porophyllum leiocarpum- Yerba de Peo
Porophyllum linaria- Pipicha, Amazing complex flavor similar to cilantro with aster undertones, underappreciated
Porophyllum ruderale- Papalo, Amazing flavor similar to cilantro with herbal undertones similar to Rue.
Porophyllum scoparium- Yerba del Vinado
Pouteria sapota- Mamey Sapote, the seeds when dried have a strong almond (benzaldehyde) scent.
Premna odorata- Fragrant Premna, Alagaw, siargaw, saliargaw, an aromatic tree in the mint family.
Prostanthera- All species in this Australian genus have some amount of Piperitone in their leaves giving the plants a minty flavor.
Prostanthera cuneata- 97)
Prostanthera incisa- Cut leaf mint bush
Prostanthera melissifolia- Balm mint bush
Prostanthera ovalifolia- 98)
Prostanthera rotundifolia- round leaf mint bush 99)
Pseudowintera axillaris- Lowland horopito
Pseudowintera colorata- Mountain horopito, pepperwood tree, leaves and bark used in new Zealand for their pepper like piquant.
Pseudowintera traversii- Travers horopito
Pyropia- nori, almost every species is used to make nori or various flavoring uses.
Quararibea funebris- Rosita de cacao- described as a complex floral flavor with notes of dried and candied fruits. Classically used for chocolate recipes 100)
Quararibea turbinata- Swizzlestick, the aromatic bark and stems are used to make sticks to stir cocktails giving a similar effect as adding a drop of bitters.
Quercus emoryi- Sweet acorn
Ricinodendron heudelotii- Mongongo, Njangsa, The oily seeds are ground to a paste used to flavor dishes across west and tropical Africa.
Rosa acicularis- Prickly rose, arctic rose
Rosa × alba-
Rosa canina- Dog rose
Rosa × centifolia- Rose de Mai
Rosa chinensis- China Rose
Rosa damascena- Rose
Rosa gallica- Apothecary rose
Rosa odorata- Tea Scented Rose, a Chinese species of rose used to make an aromatic tea.
Rosa majalis- Cinnamon rose
Rosa moschata- Musk rose
Rosa nutkana-Wild rose, Nootka rose, bristly rose
Rosa primula- Incense rose
Rosa rubiginosa- Sweet briar, petals used to make tea
Rosa rugosa- Japanese rose, Rugosa rose, beach rose, used to make petal jam for its intense fragrance.
Rumex acetosa- Sorrel
Rumex acetosella- Red sorrel
Rumex arcticus- Actic Dock
Rumex crispus- Curly dock, also high in oxalic acid.
Rumex hastatulus- Questionably edible, high in oxalic acid.
Rumex obtusifolius- Bitter Dock
Rumex occidentalis- Western dock
Rumex sagittatus- Rambling dock
Rumex scutatus- French Sorrel
Ruta graveolens- Rue, leaves are bitter and unique tasting, berries are peppery, a notably underappreciated spice 101)
Ruta chalepensis- Fringed rue, Ethiopian rue, the leaves and berries are commonly used in Ethiopian cuisine 102)
Salix aegyptiaca- Pussywillow, Persian Willow, flowers, leaves, and bark are used as flavoring. Flower water described as similar to rose or violet with a wintergreen note.
Salvia apiana- White Sage, Incense Sage
Salvia divinorum- Deviners Sage, Hallucinogenic but also used as a flavoring in liqueur.
Salvia fruticosa- Greek Sage, a common adulterant is sage seasoning mixes, often compared to common sage
Salvia hispanica- Chia
Salvia jurisicii- Stepp Sage, Macedonian Sage, Jurisic Sage, flavor profile is comparable to common sage.
Salvia officinalis- Sage, Garden sage, Common Sage
Salvia miltiorrhiza- Likely the leaves can be used as a spice 103)
Salvia pratensis- Meadow Clary, Meadow Sage
Salvia rosmarinus- Rosemary, recently changed name from Rosmarinus officinalis.
Salvia sclarea- Clary Sage
Santalum acuminatum- Desert quandong, uniquely this species is not used for its wood but instead for its flavorful fruit and edible seeds which are used as nuts similar to spicatum.
Santalum album- The primary species of sandalwood, which most other species are compared. deeply woody-powdery.
Santalum austrocaledonicum- Dark, similar to Australian sandalwood but with musky overtones.
Santalum ellipticum- ʻIliahialoʻe, a species of Hawaiian sandalwood, considered the best sandalwood int he world, sweet and powdery.
Santalum fernandezianum- Chilean Sandalwood, believed extinct from over harvesting of its aromatic wood.
Santalum freycinetianum- ʻIliahi, a species of Hawaiian sandalwood, considered inferior to ellipticum.
Santalum spicatum- Australian sandalwood, My favorite species, darker, woodier, and wetter tasting, much rougher then album. The seeds are used as a nut.
Sassafras albidum- Sassafras
Schisandra chinensis- Five flavor berry, 雞蛋花, fruits have an unusual sweet spicy flavor.
Sesamum indicum- Sesame seeds.
Sinapis alba- White Mustard, one of two primary seed used to make mustard pastes.
Smilax aristolochiifolia- Mexican Sarsaparilla, Zarzaparilla, Cocolmeca, Alambrilla, described as sweet bitter
Smilax aspera- Mediterranean Sarsaparilla
Smilax china- Chinaroot, Chinese Sarsaparilla, used in Chinese medicine and as a flavorant.
Smilax glyciphylla- Sweet Sarsaparilla, Australian Sarsaparilla,
Smilax ornata- Sarsaparilla, Jamaican Sarsaparilla, Also called Smilax regelii, this is the most common form used in beverages around the world.
Solanum centrale- Australian bush tomato
Stachys affinis- Chinese artichoke, Japanese artichoke, knotroot, roots are eaten, frequently picked as a garnish.
Stachys arvensis- Field Woundwort, Along with Stachys sylvatica was used by the romans for various medicinal uses.
Stachys byzantina- Lamb's-ear,
Stachys floridana- Florida Betony, used in a similar manner to Stachys affinis
Stachys officinalis- Common Hedgenettle, Betony, comes from a history of medicinal use, now sued to make teas.
Stachys palustris- Marsh Woundwort, used similar to Stachys arvensis, leaves are eaten as salad seasoning.
Stachys sylvatica- Hedge Woundwort, Whitespot
Strobilanthes crispa- Likely edible and flavorful, described as peach like.
Strobilanthes menglaensis- Cha Tou herb, 糯米香, added to chinese tea to impart a buttery-pandan like flavor synonym of Semnostachya Menglaensis 105) 106) 107) Strobilanthes tonkinensis- May be the same species as menglaensis 108) 109)
Tagetes lucida- Mexican tarragon
Tamarindus indica- Tamarind
Tasmannia insipida- Brush Pepperbush,
Tasmannia lanceolata- Mountain Pepperbush, Tasmanian pepper, has safrole and Polygodial, which is a piquant compound
Tasmannia stipitata- Dorrigo Pepperbush, described as woody-cinnamon 110)
Tasmannia xerophila- Alpine Pepperbush
Thlaspi arvense- Penneycress, member of the mustard family, its leaves and seeds have a peppery-mustard flavor.
Thymus capitatus- Hyssop Thyme, historic records also call this the source of Zaatar.
Thymus × citriodorus- Lemon thyme
Thymus herba-barona- Caraway Thyme
Thymus pannonicus- Eurasian thyme, Hungarian thyme.
Thymus praecox- Creeping thyme
Thymus pulegioides- Lemon thyme, interestingly the lemon scented thyme is another species.
Thymus serpyllum- Serpolet, Breckland Thyme, the flowers are used for their strong scent.
Thymus thracicus- lavender thyme
Thymus vulgaris- Thyme, Common thyme
Thymus zygis- This species is the main source of Thyme essential oil, It has 4 chemotypes that have high quantities of thymol, linalool, carvacrol, and geraniol.
Trachyspermum ammi- Ajwain, Thyme-Oregano like with a small amount of anise like flavor, very strong
Trachyspermum roxburghianum- Radhuni, a close relative to ajwain that is more parsley-celery like used in a similar manner.
Tropaeolum majus- Nasturtium, all parts including seeds have a spicy horseradish/ mustard like flavor. Flowers are commonly used as a decoration for food.
Tropaeolum tuberosum- Mashua, The tubers are eaten as a starchy vegetable and retain some of the sharp characteristic flavor of the genus.
Umbellularia californica- California Bay, a unique an indispensable spice.
Vanilla planifolia- Common vanilla, the main species used commercially to make vanilla
Vanilla pompona- This is another species used to make commercial vanilla.
Vanilla odorata- unkown if this species makes pods that are flavorful, but it is present in the tahitensis cross.
Vanilla tahitensis- likely a cross between Vanilla planifolia and Vanilla odorata, names after Tahiti where it is commercially grown. 112)
Verbascum blattaria- Moth Mullein, described at having a strong menthol flavor
Verbascum phlomoides- Orange Mullein
Verbascum phoeniceum- Purple Mullein
Verbascum sinuatum- Scallop Leafed Mullein, The flowers are used to flavor aperitifs
Verbascum thapsus- Great Mullein, leaves and flowers used to flavor alcohol
Viola odorata- sweet violet, pansy, the flowers have an intense and unique floral flavor to them, the leaves have an intense earthy vegetal flavor.
Viola tricolor- wild pansy, leaves are like that of odorata, flowers have a more mellow vanilla like flavor.
Vitex agnus-castus- Chaste, Vitex, Monksberry, this is another unique spice that is underappreciated.
Warburgia salutaris- Pepper bark, a South African species that is reported to taste similar to cinnamon but quite bitter.
Warburgia ugandensis- The leaves are used in Uganda to spice food, described as similar to curry leaves
Wasabia japonica- Wasabi, a member of the mustard family with a unique, easily perishable, spice made from the roots.
Wurfbainia villosa- Often mis-attributed as Amomum villosum. Called Xiang Sha Ren (香砂仁) in Chinese herbology. Is closer to the genus Alpinia then Amomum, and uniquely has ridged pods.
Xymalos monospora- Lemonwood, a relative to Boldo from southern Africa.
Zingiber barbatum- Meik-thalin
Zingiber cassumunar- Plai, the plai I have tried is mango like and very herbal, one other account calls it camphorous and spicy, which mine was not. 115) 116)
Zingiber montanum- Plai, this species may be different then the one I have, being described at camphorous and spicy. 117)
Zingiber mioga- Myoga, Yangha, Ranghe, the young flowers are eaten fresh and pickled, Exceptional and unique in flavor.
Zingiber officinale- Red Ginger.
Zingiber ottensii- Black Plai, questionably edible 118)
Zingiber spectabile- described as 'medicinal'
Zingiber zerumbet- Shampoo Ginger, Awapuhi, a Hawaiian ginger species whose flowers are used for perfumery. The bitter leaves and rhizomes are also used for spicing foods.
Zanthoxylum acanthopodium- Andaliman, batak
Zanthoxylum americanum- American Prickly Ash, Pepperwood, much like the Asian counterparts the fruits give a numbing sensation with complex citrus notes. 119)
Zanthoxylum armatum- Green Sichuan pepper, Timut, Timur
Zanthoxylum bungeanum- Red Sichuan pepper, prickly ash,
Zanthoxylum fagara- wild lime, unusual in that the powdered bark is used as a spice. 120)
Zanthoxylum piperitum- Sansho, Chopi, Japanese pepper
Zanthoxylum rhetsa- Teppal, Ma Khaen
Zanthoxylum schinifolium- Sancho, Korean pepper
Zanthoxylum simulans- Taiwan pepper
Zanthoxylum tessmannii- Uzazi
Zygogynum howeanum- Hotbark