Table of Contents


Abies balsamea- Fir Balsam, Has a fresh citrus piney like flavor profile.
Abies spectabilis- Bhutan Fir, used in Chinese medicine
Abies sibirica- Siberian Fir, Used widely in perfumery and as a flavoring in colas.

Acacia- Wattle, The seeds of any of the 120+ species are roasted to produce a spice that is described as chocolate, hazelnut, and coffee like
Acacia coriacea- Desert oak, giant wattle nut, described as being roasted coffee like with strong pork like notes. 1)
Acacia murrayana- Colony wattle, A secondary cultivated source of Wattle
Acacia victoriae- the main commercial source of Wattle

Achillea ageratum- Sweet Yarrow, English Mace. Historically used in gruit (spices for bittering beer) and in fumigants to remove pest insects.
Achillea millefolium- Yarrow.

Acmella oleracea- Toothache plant, electric daisy, Contains a compound much like prickly ash 2)

Acorus calamus- Calamus root, hotdog like flavor seldom used as spice

Acronychia acidula- Lemon Aspen, the small fruits are sour and lemon flavored.
Acronychia oblongifolia- similar to the lemon aspen but with a more orange like flavor.

Aframomum citratum- Mbongo
Aframomum corrorima- Korarima, Ethiopian Cardamom
Aframomum danielli- Cameroon Pepper, Grains of Peace, Alligator pepper 3)
Aframomum citratum, or Aframomum exscapum are all also called Alligator pepper.
Aframomum melegueta- Grains of paradise, Alligator pepper
Aframomum subsericeum- Ataiko, Rohojie, compared to Aframomum corrorima with a green cardamom like flavor profile.
Aframomum zambesiacum- Nangawo

Agastache cana- Citronella Hyssop,
Agastache foeniculum- Anise Hyssop,
Agastache mexicana- Lemon Scented Hyssop, Mexican Giant Hyssop,
Agastache rugosa- Korean Mint, Banga, has a complex set of essential oils.
Agastache rupestris- Licorice Mint
Agastache scrophulariifolia- Aromatic Hyssop

Agathosma betulina- Buchu, a South Afrian herb described as minty and black current like
Agathosma crenulata- Buchu, also from South Africa and used for the same purposes.
Agathosma gonaquensis- Gonaqua Buchu
Agathosma serratifolia- Longleaf Buchu, Camphor buchu

Allium- This genus has a huge amount species that have interesting culinary values.
Allium ascalonicum- Shallot
Allium cepa- Onions
Allium sativum- Garlic
Allium schoenoprasum- Chive
Allium ursinum- Ransons, Bear garlic
Allium wallachii- Jimbu

Alnus alnobetula subsp. fruticosa- Alnus viridus, Green Alder Pepper, catkins have a bitter peppery aroma and taste 4)

Aloysia citrodora- Lemon Verbena, also called Lippia citrodora.
Aloysia polystachya- Burrio
Aloysia virgata- Almond verbena
Aloysia wrightii- mint verbena, Wrights beebush, oreganillo

Alpinia caerulea- Australian native ginger, fruits are used as a souring agent, and roots and stems as a mild ginger like spice
Alpinia galanga- Greater Galangal, mostly the root is used but the seed pods called Hong Dou Kou (紅豆蔻), or red cardamom are also used. 5)
Alpinia katsumadai- Violet cardamom, called Cao Dou Kou (草豆蔻) and Xiao Cao Kou (大草蔻) 6) 7) 8)
Alpinia officinarum- Lesser Galangal
Alpinia oxyphylla-Sharpleaf galangal, bitter galangal, Yi Zhi Ren(益智仁) seed pods used. 9)
Alpinia zerumbet- Shell ginger, leaves are used to wrap dumplings, rhizomes and the fruits called Xiao Cao Kou (大草蔻) are used. 10) 11)

Amomum compactum- Round Cardamom, seeds used as a spice in java, young shoots used as a culinary herb as well. 12)
Amomum costatum- or Amomum tsao-ko, is Chinese black cardamom. Called Tsaoko, Cao Guo (草果).
Amomum glabrum 无毛砂仁 13)
Amomum kravanh- White cardamom, common in Thai cooking. Called Bai Dou Kou (白豆蔻).
Amomum longiligulare- called Mo Sha Ren 毛砂仁 14)
Amomum maximum- Java Cardamom, a species native to Java, young flowers eaten, seeds have comparable properties to other black cardamoms.15)16)
Amomum sabulatum- Indian black cardamom
Amomum testaceum- maybe another kind of white cardamom?
Amomum villosum- 香砂仁, this species has woolly pods, not ridged pods. A better name might simply be sha ren (砂仁) as 春砂仁 is used for Wurfbainia villosa which has ridged pods.17) 18)
Amomum xanthioides (Amomum villosum xanthioides) called 壳砂仁

Andrographis paniculata- Green Chiretta, Creat, used to flavor alcohol in Cambodia 19)

Angelica acutiloba- dāngguī 东洋, Toki,
Angelica archangelica- described as musky, floral, and vegetal. contains cyclopentadecanolide unique natural musk. Main species intended when something is called Angelica or Angelica root. 20)
Angelica atropurpurea- Purple angelica, American Alexanders, masterwort, stems were burnt along with tobacco for smoking
Angelica dahurica- bai zhi 白芷,
Angelica gigas- Dangquai, Korean angelica, seems to be primarily used in medicine
Angelica glauca- Chippe, Gandhrain, Commonly used for its essential oil. The roots are used as a spice and it is used to flavor liqueur.
Angelica keiskei- Ashitaba, all parts are widely used in japan as a flavoring agent and vegetable.

Anthoxanthum odoratum- Vanilla Grass, Sweet Vernal Grass, this species produces coumarin and benzoic acid when the leaves are dried.
Anthoxanthum nitens- Vanilla Grass, Sweet Grass, also called Hierochloe odorata, contains coumarin.

Apium graveolens- Celery
Apium insulare Flinders Island Celery
Apium prostratum Sea Celery

Aponogeton distachyos- Waterblommetjie, Cape pondweed, The flowers are used as a floral scented flavoring agent and vegetable. 21)

Arachis glabrata- Foragers peanut
Arachis hypogaea- Peanut
Arachis monticola- wild peanut
Arachis villosulicarpa- Perennial peanut

Aralia californica- Elk Clover, California Spikenard, used to produce herbal flavors
Aralia cordata- Japanese Spikenard, used as a vegetable and for its unusual flavored resin.
Aralia elata- Japanese Angelica Tree, used in a similar manner to Aralia cordata
Aralia nudicaulis- False Sarsaparilla, Wild Sarsaparilla, a temperate growing used for flavoring that is described as similar to Smilax species.

Araucaria angustifolia- Araucaria nuts
Araucaria araucana- Araucaria nuts
Araucaria bidwillii- Bunya nuts, the nuts of this conifer are aged and eaten, having a complex blue cheese like scent and flavor.

Areca catechu- Areca nut, betel nut,

Armoracia rusticana- Horseradish

Artemisia- this genus has a huge amount of herbs that are used for mostly bitter herbal flavoring, seemingly all species are aromatic.
Artemisia absinthium- Woodworm
Artemisia annua- Sweet woodworm
Artemisia abrotanum- Southernwood
Artemisia dracunculus- Tarragon
Artemisia ludoviciana- White Sagebrush, distillations of this plant are used in some gin and amaro recipes
Artemisia papposa- Owyhee Artemisia pontica- Little wormwood, is the primary flavoring of Absinthe.
Artemisia princeps- Japanese mugwort, used to make a strong green coloration in pasteries, it also imparts an herbal flavor.
Artemisia verlotiorum- Chinese mugwort
Artemisia vulgaris- Mugwort

Asarum canadense- Canadian wild ginger, all members of Asarum contain some aristolochic acid, which is toxic, making consuming them controversial.
Asarum caudatum- Western wild ginger, historically consumed by the native people of Oregonas a spice.
Asarum europaeum- Hazelwort, asarabacca, European wild ginger, a controversially edible rhizome.
Asarum hartwegii- Hartweg's wild ginger, grown in California for its ginger like scent.
Asarum maximum- Described as hiving the distinct scent of mushrooms
Asarum splendens- Chinese wild ginger


Backhousia angustifolia- Curry myrtle
Backhousia citriodora- Lemon myrtle, an Australian spice that has a strong lemon flavor, comparable to lemon verbena.
Backhousia leptopetala- Turpentine myrtle
Backhousia myrtifolia- Cinnamon myrtle

Ballota nigra- Black horehound, for white horehound see Marrubium vulgare

Bassia prostrata- Kochia
Bassia scoparia- Tonburi, the seeds are used to make a caviar like dish which is compared to the flavor of capers.

Beilschmiedia mannii- Tola, Spicy Cedar, the leaves are soaked in water to flavor it for beverages. 22)

Berberis darwinii- Michay
Berberis microphylla- Calafate
Berberis vulgaris- Barberry.

Betula lenta- Sweet Birch, Cherry Birch, Spice Birch, Bark is used as a wintergreen like spice, sap is used to make a sugar syrup.
Betula nigra- Black Birch, River Birch, leaves and bark used for essential oil content

Biancaea sappan- Sappan wood, Asian redwood, the heartwood from this tree is used largely in Chinese medicine but is also used as a spice 23)

Bixa orellana- Annatto, Achiote

Boesenbergia pandurata- Likely a synonym for fingerroot.
Boesenbergia rotunda- Krachai, fingerroot, a deeply herbal and medicinal tasting member of the ginger family, used in Thai cooing.

Boronia citrata- Lemon Boronia
Boronia citriodora- Lemon Scented Boronia
Boronia crenulata- Aniseed Boronia
Boronia megastigma- Scented Boronia, a flower essence is made with a flavor similar to violets or orris.
Boronia safrolifera- Sassafras Boronia.
Boronia serrulata- Rose Boronia

Brassica nigra- Black mustard seeds, one of the two main species used to make commercial mustard pastes.

Buchanania lanzan- Chironji, Charoli, wild almond, the seeds have an almond flavor and are used in a similar manner to almond seeds.

Bunium bulbocastanum- Black cumin, seems to be native closer to Europe then B. persicum.
Bunium persicum- Black cumin, Kara Jeera or Shah Jeera, also called Elwendia persica, an extreamly underappreciated spice similar to cumin and caraway.


Cardamoms- Essay on the complexity of the various genera of cardamoms (Aframomum, Alpinia, Amomum,and Elettaria)

Calluna vulgaris - Heather, brewing herb, described as lavender like, bitter and complex minty

Calycanthus floridus- Carolina Spicebush, Sweetshrub
Calycanthus occidentalis- California Spicebush 24))

Canarium album- Chinese white olive
Canarium luzonicum- Elemi, a complex oil that smells of fruit and turpentine
Canarium muelleri- Mangobark
Canarium odontophyllum- Dabai, another Chinese olive like fruit
Canarium ovatum- Pili Nut
Canarium pimela- Chinese black olive
Canarium schweinfurthii- African olive, a secondary source of Elemi oil

Canella winterana- White Cinnamon, From the Caribbean reported to look and taste like true cinnamon. Often confused with Drimys winteri which is from South America

Capsella bursa-pastoris- Shepherd's purse, member of the mustard family it has a peppery-mustard like flavor to the seeds and leaves.

Carthamus tinctorius- Safflower, a strong yellow to red dye is produced from the flower petals which is used as an alternative to saffron or turmeric.

Carum carvi- Caraway
Carum foetidum-
Carum nigrum- Shah Jeera, easily mixed up or perhaps the same spice as black cumin? 25)
Carum verticillatum- Whorled caraway

Carya cathayensis- Chinese hickory, This is the primary species of hickory eaten in East Asia
Carya illinoinensis- Pecan
Carya laciniosa- Shellbark Hickory, this is the primary species eaten for hickory nuts in North America.
Carya ovalis- Spicebark Hickory, red hickory,
Carya ovata- Shagbark Hickory, sweet hickory, the bark is used to flavor spirits and syrups imparting a smokey oak like, maple like flavor profile
Carya tomentosa- Mockernut hickory, hognut, This is the primary hickory species thats wood is used for smoking.

Ceiba pentandra- Kapok, Marathi Moggu, The dried flower buds are used similar to capers in Southern India, described as having a peppery flavor 26)

Celosia argentea var. cristata- Cockscomb, used to produce bright red and purple colors to dye food.

Centella asiatica- Gotu Kola, Pennywort, Asiatic or Indian Pennywort, also called Hydrocotyle asiatica, oddly aromatic leaves, swampy, carrot like, cola like.

Chamaenerion angustifolium- Ivan Chai, Fireweed, Willowherb, Leaves are used as a tea like drink in Russia, roots and shoots are also eaten.

Chimaphila maculata- Spotted wintergreen
Chimaphila umbellata- Pipsissewa, roots have a flavor described as similar to wintergreen

Chrozophora tinctoria- Turnsole, Giradol, Dyers Croton, Used as a blue- red dye in foods, especially desserts.

Chrysanthemum morifolium- Tea Chrysanthemum 27)

Chrysopogon aciculatus- Drylove, amorseco,
Chrysopogon nigritanus- Black vetivergrass
Chrysopogon zizanioides- Vetiver, a deeply woody-earthy grassy flavor that is without comparison.

Cichorium endivia- Endive, chicory, a bitter and herbal salad green, often sued as a base for dishes where the stiff leaves can be used as a vessel to hold other foods.
Cichorium intybus- Chicory, chicory root, roots are commonly roasted and ground to make a coffee flavored drink, it is often added to coffee to enhance the flavor.
Cichorium pumilum- another edible species of chicory.

Cinnamodendron corticosum- Used as a cinnamon like spice in Jamaica.

Cinnamomum burmannii- Indonesian Cinnamon, Korintje, for a brakedown of species see the Gernot 28)
Cinnamomum camphora- Camphor
Cinnamomum cassia- Cassia
Cinnamomum cebuense- Cebu Cinnamon, Filipino Cinnamon, \\29)
Cinnamomum citriodorum- Malabar Cinnamon
Cinnamomum culilawan- Lawang, Kulitlawang, sometimes called Cinnamomum cullilawan 30) 31) 32) 33) 34)
Cinnamomum glaucescens- sugandha kokila, berries used 35)
Cinnamomum iners- Clove cinnamon, Kayu Manis Hutan, Teja Lawang, Medang Teja, described as clove like, likely similar to Lawang 36)
Cinnamomum malabatrum- A species of cinnamon used in a similar way to tamala, the bark is also used.
Cinnamomum mercadoi- Kalingag, primary species traditionally used in Filipino cooking. Described as having a menthol and safrol flavor profile.
Cinnamomum mindaenense- Mana, Mindanao Cinnamon, flavor profile unknown.
Cinnamomum oliveri- Australian cinnamon species that has a high safrole content along with eugenol and camphor.
Cinnamomum osmophloeum- Pseudocinnamomum
Cinnamomum ovalifolium- wild cinnamon, wal kurundu
Cinnamomum tamala- Indian Bay Leaf
Cinnamomum loureiroi- Saigon or Vietnamese Cinnamon
Cinnamomum verum- Sri Lankan or Ceylon Cinnamon
Cinnamomum zeylanicum- this is a synonym of Cinnamomum verum

Cinnamosma fragrans- Saro, False sandalwood, greenwood, used and described as similar to cinnamon.

Citrus- On the spectacular amount of citrus species that can be used as spices.

Citrus aurantifolia- Lime 37)
Citrus australasica- Finger Lime
Citrus australis- Round Lime, another Australian species
Citrus bergamia- Bergamot 38)
Citrus glauca- Desert Lime, an Australian species
Citrus hystrix- Makrut, Thai lime leaf this citrus is unique in the leaves are directly used as a spice as well as the fruits.
Citrus medica- Citron
Citrus sinensis- Orange
Citrus limon- Lemon

Clausena anisata- Perdepis, Horsewood, described as having a strong anise like flavor.
Clausena anisum-olens- Kalumata, Anis, Kayumanis (not to be confused for the Bahasa name for cinnamon), A Filipino tree that has a strong anise like aroma.
Clausena excavata- Cama, described as being similar in scent to curry leaves. Fruits have an anise like flavor.

Cleome viscosa- Jakhya, Wild mustard, a member of the mustard family, seeds are used similar to other mustard seeds. 39)

Clinopodium brownei- Browne's savory
Clinopodium douglasii- Yerba Buena, a name in common with several other herbs.
Clinopodium macrostemum- Nurite, Toche, Hediondilla,
Clinopodium menthifolium- Wood Calamint
Clinopodium nepeta- Lesser Calamint
Clinopodium vimineum- Puerto Rican Savory, Herba Buena
Clinopodium vulgare- Wild basil

Clitoria ternatea- Blue butterfly pea, used to dye foods a vibrant blue-purple color.

Cocos nucifera-Coconut

Cola acuminata- Kola Nut
Cola nitida- Kola Nut

Most of the aromatic species of Coleus were originally placed in the genus Plectranthus.
Coleus amboinicus- Cuban Oregano, Spanish Thyme, has an oregano like flavor profile
Coleus cremnus- Described as having a rose like or geranium like scent
Coleus esculentus- African Potato, Produces edible tubers.
Coleus neochilus- Boldo-Gambá, Mosquito Bush, Described as having a mint like scent and flavor.
Coleus rotundifolius- Chinese Potato, Country Potato, produces edible tubers.
Coleus maculosus subsp. edulis- Ethiopian Potato, produces edible tubers.

Colocasia gigantea- Giant Taro, Gernot claims the seeds are also used as a spice. 40)
Colocasia esculenta -Taro

Comptonia peregrina- Sweet Fern, not related to ferns, described as being honeyed, pine like, resinous, and bitter. 41)

Conocephalum conicum- Scented Liverwort, there are 3 species associated with having a scent with unknown margins in chemotype between them. 42)
Conocephalum salebrosum-
Conocephalum supradecompositum-

Coreopsis tinctoria- Kunlun Chrysanthemum, Plains coreopsis, calliopsis

Coriandrum sativum- Coriander, cilantro

Cornus amomum- Eastern silky dogwood, named after amomum for unknown reasons, likely because the seeds are spice like?
Cornus mas-

Crithmum maritimum- Rock Samphire, Sea Fennel, tastes of complex herbal flavor that is spicy, dill and fennel like.

Croton eluteria- Cascarilla, used as a flavor and bittering agent in Campari and Vermouth.
Croton tiglium- used in a similar manner as Cascarilla but from a Chinese tradition instead of an Italian one.

Crowea exalata- ?? 43)

Cryptocaria massoia- Massoia

Cucurbita pepo- Melon Seeds, commercial melon seeds

Cuminum cyminum- Cumin, the only culinary member of its genus

Curcuma amada- Mango Turmeric, named after the sour fruity smell of the rhizomes. also known as Curcuma mangga. 44)
Curcuma angustifolia- East Indian Arrowroot, the rhizomes are used as a culinary vegetable.
Curcuma aromatica- Wild Turmeric.
Curcuma australasica- Cape York Turmeric, the rhizomes are eaten as a root vegetable in Australia.
Curcuma caesia- Black Turmeric
Curcuma comosa- Widely used for medicinal perposes, the essential oils have potential as a food flavoring, culinary palatability is unknown.
Curcuma longa- Turmeric
Curcuma zanthorrhiza- Temulawak, Javanese ginger, 45)
Curcuma zedoaria- Zedoary

Cymbopogon- The whole genera is edible, most having a citrusy flavor and scent.
Cymbopogon citratus- Lemongrass
Cymbopogon flexuosus- East Indian Lemongrass 46)
Cymbopogon martini- Palmarosa, Gingergrass, varies from roselike to spicy and herbal
Cymbopogon nardus- Citronella, source of commercial citronella oil
Cymbopogon refractus- Barbed wire grass, used as an herb in Australia. 47)
Cymbopogon schoenanthus- Described as minty and lemony

Cyperus articulatus- jointed flatsedge, priprioca, the roots are used as a earthy flavoring and red colorant, used as a starch and thickening agent in drinks.
Cyperus bulbosus- Australian bush onion, used in a similar manner to Cyperus articulatus.
Cyperus esculentus- Tiger nut, the tubers are edible and used as a nutty flavoring and as a starch source.
Cyperus longus- English Galingale, Sweet Galangale, Unknown flavor profile, tubers once used to approximate the flavor and medicinal qualities of galangal.
Cyperus rotundus- Used as a bitter flavoring.
Cyperus scariosus- Cypriol, mostly used for perfume but can be used to impart a deep earth flavor, comparable to patchouli.


Dendrobium nobile- a controversial tea is made from the dried flowers, it has a soft green floral flavor, not all active compounds are understood.

Descurainia sophia- Seeds are used as a gelling agent similar to basil seeds.

Dichrostachys cinerea- Omubambanjobe, seeds contain geraniol 48)

Dioscorea polystachya- The flowers are described as having a cinnamon scent to them,

Dipteryx alata- Baru, Baru almond
Dipteryx charapilla-
Dipteryx micrantha-
Dipteryx odorata- Tonka Bean

Ditaxis heterantha- Azafran, Mexican Saffron, Seeds produce a strong yellow dye used similar to saffron and turmeric. Closely related to safflower.

Dodonaea triquetra- Common Hopbush, Australlian Hopbush, seed pods used as a hop substitute.
Dodonaea viscosa- Hopbush, Asian Hopbush, used in medicine practices across Asia, used as a hop substitute.

Doryphora sassafras- Golden Sassafras
Doryphora aromatica- Golden Spiceherb

Dracaena cinnabari- Dragons blood, the resin is sparingly used as a flavorant for toothpaste
Dracaena draco-
Dracaena fragrans-

Drimys winteri- Canelo, Winterbark, a spicy bark is produced that is compared to pepper, it has a unique mode of producing piquant.

Dysphania ambrosioides- Epazote
Dysphania anthelmintica- Wormseed
Dysphania botrys- Sticky Oak Goosefoot, Feathered Geranium
Dysphania multifida- Scented goosefoot
Dysphania pumilio- Clammy Goosefoot


Echinops giganteus- Cameroon globe thistle 49)
Echinops echinatus- Indian globe thistle

Elsholtzia ciliata- Crested Late Summer Mint, Vietnamese balm, xiang ru ,香薷, kinh giới, described as lemony
Elsholtzia fruticosa- Ji Gu Chai
Elsholtzia rugulosa-

Elwendia persica- Black cumin, Kala Jeera, Kara Jeera, more commonly called Bunium persicum, not to be confused with Nigella sativa

Eriocephalus africanus- Cape Rosemary, not related to rosemary but named such for is physical resemblance.
Eriocephalus punctulatus- Cape chamomile

Eriodictyon californicum- Yerba Buena, Yerba Santa, Mountain balm, the plant contains taste modifying compounds that effect the perception of bitter flavors, similar to miracle berries.
Eriodictyon crassifolium- Thickleaf yerba santa, Described as rank

Etlingera elatior- Bongkot, Bunga, Torch ginger, flowers used in a similar manner to Myoga. Rhizome is also used 50)
Etlingera fulgens- Used as a substitute for torch ginger
Etlingera maingayi- Used as a substitute for torch ginger

Eucalyptus dives- Peppermint Gum 51)
Eucalyptus globulus- Tasmanian Blue Gum
Eucalyptus olida- Strawberry Gum
Eucalyptus polybractea- Blue-leaved Mallee
Eucalyptus staigeriana- Lemon Ironbark

Eupomatia laurina- Bolwarra, a myrtle whose fruits are used as spice in Australia 52)


Fumaria officinalis- Fumitory, Fumitary, Earth Smoke, used as a flavor water in Persian cuisine. Described as minty in quality. 53)

Ferula assa-foetida- Hing, Asafetida
Ferula communis- Laser, Giant fennel,
Ferula cypria- Cyprus Fennel,
Ferula gummosa- Galbanum
Ferula hermonis- Zallouh
Ferula moschata- Sumbul, Muskroot,
Ferula persica- Sagapenum
Ferula tingitana- African ammoniacum
Silphium also known as laserpicium is likely a species of Ferula

Filipendula occidentalis- Queen-of-the-forest,
Filipendula rubra- Queen-of-the-meadow, lilac scented flowers, can be used to make cordials
Filipendula ulmaria- Meadowsweet, mead wort, a rose family member with all parts described as floral, and honey like in scent
Filipendula vulgaris- dropwort, fern leaf dropwort, wintergreen scented foliage


Galinsoga parviflora- Guasca, a unusually flavored herb, described as tasting like artichoke heart, used for classic dishes in Columbia
Galinsoga quadriradiata- Used in a similar manner as parviflora, but the leaves are hairy

Galium odoratum- Woodruff, the leaves and stems are high in coumarin giving it a flavor similar to mahaleb and tonka beans.

Garcinia gummi-gutta- Frequently called Garcinia cambodge- Kudampuli, korakka puli, Kudampuli, exceedingly sour, smokey and fermented tasting.
Garcinia indica- Kokum, the fruit husks are used as a fruity-souring agent that is often compared to tamarind also used as a culinary red dye.
Garcinia quaesita- Another source of korakkai puli, also called Goraka, frequently confused/interchangeable with Garcinia gummi-gutta

Gaultheria procumbens- Wintergreen. Several other members of the genus also contain methyl salicylate at very high levels and have an almost identical flavor.

Geum- Various species in this genus, all called Avens and Bonnet, were used to impart a Eugenol note to food before the wide availability of cloves.
Geum urbanum- Avens, Bonnet, Colewort, St. Benedict's herb. used for its roots which have Eugenol in them.

Glechoma hederacea- Alehoof, Creeping Charlie, used as a flavoring agent in beer prior to the use of hops, also used as a salad green and in cheese.

Glycosmis pentaphylla- Gin berry, The seeds can be used as an herbaceous-herbal tasting spice.

Glycyrrhiza echinata- Russian Licorice
Glycyrrhiza glabra- Licorice root
Glycyrrhiza lepidota- Wild Licorice
Glycyrrhiza uralensis- Chinese Licorice

Guizotia abyssinica- Nyjer Seeds, Niger seed, similar to sunflower seeds, toasted and used as a paste for flavoring.


Hedychium spicatum- Spiked ginger lily, the rhizomes are used as a spice and described as intermediate between ginger and orris.
Hedychium coronarium- Hawaiian spike ginger, edible.

Hedysarum alpinum- Hedysarum, used as a floral water in Persia, tastes similar to licorice root. 54)

Helianthus- All species of helianthus can make edible seeds that varyingly resemble sunflower seeds.
Helianthus annuus- The common sunflower, this is the dominate species used to make commercial sunflower seeds and oil.
Helianthus ciliaris- Yerba Parda, Texas Blueweed
Helianthus resinosus- Resindot Sunflower
Helianthus tuberosus- Jerusalem Artichoke, Sunchoke, this species is notable in that the tubers are eaten.

Hedeoma drummondii- False Pennyroyal, used for its minty like flavor in parts of Mexico, may contain pulegone.
Hedeoma patens- Oregano Chiquito, described as having an oregano like aroma.
Hedeoma pulegioides- American False Pennyroyal, much like pennyroyal it contains pulegone, which is considered toxic and consumption is not recommended.
Hedeoma reverchonii- Described as having a lemon and camphor like aroma.

Hemidesmus indicus- Indian Sarsaparilla, used as a flavoring in various carbonated drinks and candy.

Heracleum maximum- Indian celery, the young greens and seeds are eaten as a flavoring in the northwestern United States.
Heracleum persicum- Golpar, sometimes called angelica seed(an unrelated species), flavor is highly unique, resentment of Rue and angelica root. 55)
Heracleum sphondylium- Common Hogweed, Cow parsnip, the seeds have a flavor that resembles green cardamom. 56)

Horsefieldia australiana- previously Myristica australiana, Australian spice similar to nutmeg
Horsfieldia kingii- A relative to nutmeg, described as similar in many ways 57)

Houttuynia cordata- Rap ka, chameleon herb, copper herb, the leaves and rhizomes are eaten

Hyssopus officinalis- Hyssop,


Ilex, only these 4 species are confirmed to be edible as far as I know, all other species are likely highly toxic.
Ilex guayusa- Guayusa, widely consumed in South America especially along the Andes mountain range.
Ilex kaushue- Kuding, an overwhelmingly bittering agent that also contains a large amount of caffeine.
Ilex paraguariensis- Yerba Mate, another common South American drink that is used in a similar way to tea.
Ilex vomitoria- Yaupon, Cassina, a North American species also used to make a caffeinated tea like drink, has a malty-herbal complex flavor

Illicium anisatum- Is a highly toxic relavtive to star anise that can even have a similar spiced scent. All other members in the genus Illicium except verum are toxic.
Illicium verum- Star Anise

Irvingia gabonensis- African Mango, Dika, Wild Mango, unrelated to mango, the seeds are roasted and ground to make a flavorful paste.
Irvingia malayana- Wild Almond, Barking Deer’s Mango


Juglans ailantifolia- Japanese Walnut, Heartnut
Juglans cinerea Butternut
Juglans neotropica Andean Walnut, nogal
Juglans nigra Eastern black walnut, Black Walnut
Juglans regia Persian walnut, English Walnut

Jumellea fragrans- Faham, an orchid from Mauritius used to make herbal infusions, has a floral honey quality, historically used like vanilla. 58)

Juniperus communis- Common juniper, the cones are used as a bitter coniferous flavor.
Juniperus monosperma- Cones are traditionally eaten by the Navajo
Juniperus virginiana- American juniper, used the same as juniper berries.

Justicia pectoralis-


Kaempferia galanga- Kencur, sand ginger, a camphorous and medicinal member of the ginger family.
Kaempferia parviflora- Thai black ginger, Krachai dum, used much like kencur, considered a aphrodisiac.

Kunzea ambigua- White Kunzea, a spice with a similarity to Callistemon or Melaleuca
Kunzea muelleri- Described as rosemary like.59)
Kunzea pomifera- Muntries, berries and leaves are used as a spice. 60)
Kunzea robusta- Manuka, leaves are used to make essential oil, close to the flavor of tea tree.


Lamium album- White nettle, Bee nettle
Lamium amplexicaule- Henbit, common henbit nettle
Lamium purpureum- Deadnettle, used like other members of the genus, the pollen can dye foods red. 61)

Lantana- though many species have strong lemony and herbal scents, all species are poisonous as far as I know.

Laurus nobilis- Bay Laurel

Lepidium- Almost all species of Lepidium are edible, called peppercress, peppergrass, and pepperwort. Part of the mustard family they have a peppery-mustard flavor to the seeds and leaves.
Lepidium latifolium- Dittander, perennial pepperweed,broadleaved pepperwort.
Lepidium meyenii- Maca, the root is used to make a musty tasting spice as well as a medicine
Lepidium sativum- Garden Cress, used as a peppery mustard like leaf vegetable

Leonurus cardiaca- Motherwort, lions tail,
Leonurus japonicus- Chinese Motherwort,
Leonurus sibiricus- Siberian Motherwort, honeyweed, many species of motherwort seem to be high in alkaloids and likely have psychoactive effects.

Leptotes bicolor- A relative of vanilla that also has flavorful seed pods.

Levisticum officinale- Lovage

Ligusticum striatum- Chinese Lovage, chuanxiong (川芎) the seed pods called Xiang Guo(香果) are often, perhaps dubiously, attributed to this species. 62)

Limnophila aromatica- Rice patty herb, Rau om, another highly underappreciated herb

Lindera aggregata- Japanese spicebush
Lindera benzoin- Spicebush
Lindera melissifolia- Southern spicebush
Lindera neesiana- Pepperbush, Sil-timur Berry 63)

Lingdera thomsonii- Unlikely a real species, often the quoted species for the fruit of Xiang Guo(香果) also called Ligusticum chuanxiong which is also a misnomer name 64)

Lippia abyssinica- Koseret, Widely used in Ethiopia it has a minty eucalyptus like flavor.
Lippia alba- 65)
Lippia citriodora- Lemon Verbena.
Lippia graveolens- Mexican Oregano, has a flavor complex similar to oregano with many unique rank notes
Lippia micromera- Spanish Thyme, Caribbean Oregano, Puerto Rican Oregano, used in the Caribbean much like Mexican Oregano.
Lippia palmeri- Xomcahiift

Litsea cubeba- May Chang, mountain pepper, fruits and leaves have a strong lemon scent, fruit look like peppercorns.
Litsea glaucescens- Mexican bay leaves
Litsea glutinosa- unknown

Lodoicea maldivica- Coco de mer

Lysimachia foenum-graecum 灵香草 ling xiang cao 66)


Macadamia integrifolia- Queensland Nut, smooth shelled macadamia.
Macadamia ternifolia-
Macadamia tetraphylla- rough shelled Macadamia

Mammea suriga- Nag Kesar, Kobra Saffron, the flower buds are used as a woody citrusy spice. The flowers may also be used to make a floral water. 67).

Mangifera altissima- Pahutan
Mangifera caesia- Jack, White Mango, Binjai
Mangifera casturi- Kalimantan Mango, Kasturi
Mangifera foetida- Horse Mango, Malmut, Limus, Bachang, fruits eaten pickled.
Mangifera indica- Mango, Amchur, tropical fruity tasting souring agent.
Mangifera kemanga-
Mangifera laurina- Mangga Kopyor
Mangifera odorata- Kwini
Mangifera pajang- Bambangan
Mangifera sylvatica- Himalayan mango, Pickling Mango
Mangifera zeylanica- Sri Lanka Wild Mango

Magnolias- Essay on the various magnolia species.
Magnolia biondii- Buds are used as a spice and medicine. 68)
Magnolia denudata- Buds are used as a spice and medicine.
Magnolia grandiflora- the flowers and buds are used to make a floral lemon flavor.
Magnolia hypoleuca- Used in Japan as a spice, with leaves being used to wrap food and also ground and added to food. used to make hoba miso. 69)
Magnolia mexicana- Flowers used as well as young leaves. 70)
Magnolia obovata- Used in Japan as a spice, with leaves being used to wrap food and also ground and added to food. used to make hoba miso.
Magnolia sprengeri- Buds are used as a spice and medicine.

Melaleuca quinquenervia- Broad-leaf Paperbark 71)
Melaleuca leucadendron- Weeping Paperbark

Melilotus albus- Honey clover, Sweet clover, White clover, the clover described in clover honey. 72)
Melilotus officinalis Yellow Sweet Clover, similar to albus, both have high coumarin contents

Mint- There are a huge amount of minty plants
Mentha aquatica- Water Mint.
Mentha aquatica var. citrata- Bergamot Mint, Orange Mint, Eau de Cologne mint. Very high in linalyl acetate and linalool. Sometimes called Mentha × piperita f. citrata
Mentha australis- River Mint
Mentha diemenica- Slender Mint
entha × gracilis- Ginger Mint
Mentha longifolia- Horse Mint
Mentha × piperita- Peppermint, Chocolate Mint
Mentha pulegium- Pennyroyal, notable for its historic uses and unusually high levels of pulegone, a toxic monoterpene, it is not recommended to consume Pennyroyal.
Mentha requienii- Corsican Mint, used as the flavorant of Crème de Menthe
Mentha saturioides- 73)
Mentha spicata- Spearmint, Yerba Buena.
Mentha suaveolens- Apple Mint

[Mertensia virginica]]- Virginia Bluebell, Roanoke Bells, Lungwort Oysterleaf, an edible borage with a cucumber like flavor profile.

Monarda citriodora- lemon beebalm, lemon mint
Monarda clinopodia- white bergamot, basil beebalm
Monarda clinopodioides- basil beebalm
Monarda didyma- Oswego tea, fragrant balm
Monarda fistulosa- Wild bergamot, beebalm, tastes like caraway and thyme and not much like bergamot citrus.
Monarda punctata- spotted beebalm, thyme beebalm

Mondia whitei- says its a spice in Africa.. dubious

Monodora myristica- Calabash nutmeg, Ehuru, Acrican nutmeg, a species in the Annonaceae family with a nutmeg like flavor. 74)

Murraya koenigii- Curry leaves
Murraya paniculata- Jasmine Orange, leaves and fruits are edible

Marrubium vulgare- White horehound, compared to the flavor of wintergreen or rootbeer, for black horehound see Ballota nigra

Myrica gale- Gale, sweetgale, bog myrtle. 75)
Myrica rubra- Yumberry, bayberry, the fruits are using to add a fruity sweet flavor to soups.

Myristica argentea- Long nutmeg, Macassar nutmeg, horse nutmeg, used as a nutmeg replacement.
Myristica cagayanensis- used in Chinese medicine 76)
Myristica fatua- Used as an replacement for nutmeg
Myristica fragrans- True nutmeg and Mace
Myristica guatteriifolia- Used in Chinese medicine 77)
Myristica impressinerva- unknown 78)
Myristica iners– Unknown 79)
Myristica insipida- Australian spice similar to nutmeg
Myristica malabarica- Kattujathi, Rampatri, Malabar Nutmeg, Bombay mace, a native to India with similar properties to nutmeg and mace, likely unique
Myristica malaccensis- Unknown 80)
Myristica simiarum- Used in Chinese medicine. 81)
Myristica speciosa- Used as an replacement for nutmeg
Myristica succedanea- Batjang Nutmeg, used as a replacement for nutmeg
Myristica umbellata- Unknown 82)
Myristica yunnanensis- 83) 84)

Myrocarpus fastigiatus- Cabreuva, an underappreciated spicy woody flavor.

Myroxylon balsamum- Peru & Tolu Balsam, Used for making rootbeer and cream soda flavor profiles. Has a complex vanilla styrene like scent and flavor.
Myroxylon peruiferum- Quina

Myrtus communis- Myrtle leaves
Myrtus nivellei- Saharan myrtle


Nardostachys chinensis- Chinese Spikenard
Nardostachys jatamansi- Spikenard, muskroot, Fleabane

Nashia inaguensis- Moujean Tea, Bahama Berry, Pineapple Verbena, described as having a herbal, citrus, vanilla, and pineapple like quality.

Nasturtium microphyllum- yellowcress
Nasturtium officinale- Watercress

Nigella arvensis- Field nigella.
Nigella damascena- is often confused with Nigella sativa, demascana contains alkaloids making consuming the seeds controversial.
Nigella sativa- Nigella, Kalonji


Ocimum × africanum- Lemon basil, a cross between O. americanum and O. basilicum
Ocimum basilicum- Sweet Basil, common European basil
Ocimum campechianum- 85)
Ocimum × citriodorum- Lemon Basil, same as Ocimum × africanum.
Ocimum gratissimum- Clove basil, scent leaves, commonly used in West African cooking.
Ocimum kilimandscharicum- Camphor Basil
Ocimum kilimandscharicum × basilicum- African Blue basil, an odd cross that behaves as a perennial.
Ocimum minimum- mini Basil, Bush basil
Ocimum tenuiflorum- Holy Basil

Ocotea pretiosa- South american cinnamon, these trees are describes as having bark with a cinnamon taste
Ocotea quixos- South american cinnamon, these trees are describes as having bark with a cinnamon taste
Ocotea sassafras- The bark is high in safrole.

Olea capensis- Black Ironwood
Olea europaea- European olive. The leaves are also used as an unusual spice.

Origanum dictamnus- Dittany of Crete, Hop Marjoram.
Origanum majorana- Marjoram, Sweet Marjoram.
Origanum onites- Ellinikí Rίgani, Pot Marjoram, Cretan oregano.
Origanum rotundifolium- Round Leaf Oregano.
Origanum syriacum- Zaatar, Za'atar.
Origanum vulgare- Oregano, also called wild Zaatar.

Osmanthus fragrans- Osmanthus, the flowers are used to impart a strong floral-apricot flavor.

Osmundea oederi- Brittle Fern Weed
Osmundea osmunda- Royal Fern Weed
Osmundea pinnatifida- Pepper Dulce, Flat fern weed 86)
Osmundea truncata- Iridescent Fern Weed

Oxalis acetosella- Common wood sorrel
Oxalis articulata- Pink wood sorrel, Chari amilo, Netho khatta saag, high in ascorbic acid
Oxalis corniculata- Creeping wood sorrel
Oxalis enneaphylla- Scurvy-grass sorrel, contains ascorbic acid
Oxalis montana- Mountain woodsorrel
Oxalis pes-caprae- Sourgrass, Bermuda sorrel, buttercup oxalis, Cape sorrel, widespread species, the flower stems are commonly sucked on for their sour flavor.
Oxalis stricta- Common oxalis, common yellow woodsorrel, lemon clover, a short growing widespread species of oxalis, commonly found in lawns.
Oxalis tuberosa- Oca, Uqa, The roots are eaten as a starchy vegetable and often have an unusual sour character due to the oxalic acid content common across the genus.


Palmaria palmata- red dulse, and edible seaweed with a strong savory flavor to it.

Pandanus amaryllifolius- Pandan leaves, used to impart a specific sweet vanilla-bread like flavor and often a green coloration.
Pandanus julianettii- Karuka, pandan nut, this species is unusual as the seeds are roasted and used much like other nuts.
Pandanus odoratissimus- Kewra, The flowers are used in a water form much like rose water and orange blossom water.
Pandanus odorifer- another name for Kewra, same species.
Pandanus tectorius- thatch screwpine, less aromatic, but still scented leaves.
Pandanus utilis- Common screwpine, less aromatic, but still scented leaves.

Papaver hybridum- An unknown species of poppy described by Pliny the Elder, included only in the historical record.
Papaver orientale- Oriental poppy, used for seeds
Papaver rhoeas- Intermediate poppy, used for seeds
Papaver somniferum- Poppy seeds.

Parmelia perlata- Dagad Phool, Black stone flower, A rock lichen used as an earthy flavored spice. Very mild in intensity, similar in some ways to oakmoss.

Parmotrema perlatum- Kalpasi, quite unusual as its a lichen used as a enigmatic spice widely in India.

Pastinaca sativa- Parsnip

Peganum harmala- Wild Rue, Esphand, seeds are deeply bitter, eaten and used as incense, acts as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, apparently can be hallucinogenic as well. 87)

Pentaclethra macrophylla- Ugba 88)

Perilla frutescens- Perilla, Shiso, tía tô, deulkkae, kkaennip, one of the most underappreciated leafy herbs.

Persea americana- Avacado, the leaves and bark are used mildly as spices
Persea drimy­folia- Mexican Avacado, the leaves have a strong safrole clove like flavor

Petroselinum crispum- Parsley

Persicaria hydropiper- Tade, Japense water pepper,
Persicaria hydropiperoides- False Water pepper
Persicaria minor- Kesum, used in Malaysia in a similar manner to Vietnamese Coriander.
Persicaria maculosa-
Persicaria odorata- rau răm, Vietnamese coriander, Laksa mint,
Persicaria tinctoria- Chinese / Japanese Indigo, Used as a source of Indigo dye before the introduction of Indigofera species.

Peumus boldus- Boldo leaves, one of the most overlooked spices

Phyla dulcis- Aztec Sweet Herb, has a strong sweetening effect.

Picea mariana- Black Spruce, Used to make spruce beer and rootbeer, the most widely used species of spruce.
Picea pungens- Colorado Blue Spruce, used in flavoring
Picea rubens- Red Spruce, used in rootbeer production
Picea sitchensis- Sitka Spruce, Used in rootbeer production

Pimenta dioica- Allspice, the berries as well as the leaves and bark can be used as spices.
Pimenta racemosa- West Indian Bay, Bay Rum, used to flavor alcohols and perfumes. 89)

Pinus- All species of pine are edible with Ponderosa, Monterey, and lodgepole pine considered by some to be exceptions 90)

Pipers- Essay on the various species of pepper in the genus Piper.
Piper aduncum- Matico, spiked pepper, leaves and fruits are used, often compared to long pepper.
Piper auritum- Hoja Santa, rootbeer leaf, the leaves are essential to mole verde and used and impart a safrole heavy rootbeer like flavor.
Piper betle- Betel leaves, used as a stimulant as well as a spice.
Piper borbonense- Voatsiperifery, similar to cubeb.
Piper capense- African long pepper, timiz, commonoly used in Ethiopia.
Piper chaba- Choi Jhal, the roots, leaves and stems are used for their extreme piquant pungency.
Piper cubeba- Cubeb
Piper excelsum- Kawakawa, intermediate between pepper and Kava, roots, leaves, and berries are used as a bitter spice.
Piper guineense- Azizi pepper, Ashanti pepper, both the fruits and leaves are used, i t is often compared to cubeb, essential to many African dishes. 91) 92) 93) 94)
Piper hooglandii- An Australian island (Lord Howe Island) species that is reported to be used like Kavakava, it also has pungent berries.
Piper kadsura- Japanese pepper, leaves and fruits used as a bitter spice.
Piper marginatum- Anisi Wiwiri, Anise pepper, species grown in Suriname with leaves used for flavor use,described as similar to anise 95)
Piper methysticum- Kavakava, the roots and leaves are occasionally used as a spice.
Piper mullesua- Assam pepper, 96)
Piper nigrum- Black pepper
Piper retrofractum- Indonesian Long Pepper 97)
Piper sanctum- Another name for Hoja Santa Piper auritum
Piper ribisioides- Pepper Root, Pepper wood, Chili Wood, the Roots and peppercorns of this Piper species are ground and used as a spice,. 98)
Piper sarmentosum- Lolot, the leaves are used as a spice in southeast asian cooking.
Piper longum- Long Pepper, pipli, the roots are called Ganthoda.

Pistacia lentiscus- Mastic, the resin with a strong turpentine like flavor.
Pistacia terebinthus- Turpentine, the original was made from the resin of this tree.
Pistacia vera- Pistachio

Platycodon grandiflorus- Doraji, Kikyō, Chinese Bellflower, the roots are used in Korea as a vegetable and for their pungent flavor.

Poliomintha incana- Frosted Mint, hoary rosemary-mint, Used as a flavoring spice by the Hopi as well as the Tewa.
Poliomintha longiflora- Oregano Indio, often called simply oregano in Mexico.

Polypodium glycyrrhiza- Licorice fern, sweet root, Contains a compound that is 500 times sweeter then sugar, has a bitter-sweet earthy flavor profile
Polypodium vulgare- Common Polypody, sweet root, described as similar to glycyrrhiza.

Populus balsamifera- Balsam Poplar, Hackmatack, Tacamahaca, The resinous leaves are used as a spice 99)

Porophyllum gracile- Odora, Xtisil
Porophyllum leiocarpum- Yerba de Peo
Porophyllum linaria- Pipicha, Amazing complex flavor similar to cilantro with aster undertones, underappreciated
Porophyllum ruderale- Papalo, Amazing flavor similar to cilantro with herbal undertones similar to Rue.
Porophyllum scoparium- Yerba del Vinado

Pouteria sapota- Mamey Sapote, the seeds when dried have a strong almond (benzaldehyde) scent.

Premna odorata- Fragrant Premna, Alagaw, siargaw, saliargaw, an aromatic tree in the mint family.

Prostanthera- All species in this Australian genus have some amount of Piperitone in their leaves giving the plants a minty flavor.
Prostanthera cuneata- 100)
Prostanthera incisa- Cut leaf mint bush
Prostanthera melissifolia- Balm mint bush
Prostanthera ovalifolia- 101)
Prostanthera rotundifolia- round leaf mint bush 102)

Prunus dulcis- Almonds
Prunus mahaleb- Mahaleb, can be compared in flavor to Tonka Beans.

Pseudowintera axillaris- Lowland horopito
Pseudowintera colorata- Mountain horopito, pepperwood tree, leaves and bark used in new Zealand for their pepper like piquant.
Pseudowintera traversii- Travers horopito

Ptelea trifoliata- Hoptree, Skunkbush, Skunkash, Used as seasoning and as a replacement for hops in colonial America.
Ptelea crenulata- California Hoptree, described as similar to Ptelea trifoliata

Punica granatum- Pomegranate seeds.
Punica protopunica- Socotran pomegranate

Pycnanthemum pilosum- Mountain Mint
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium-
Pycnanthemum virginianum-

Pyropia- nori, almost every species is used to make nori or various flavoring uses.


Quararibea funebris- Rosita de cacao- described as a complex floral flavor with notes of dried and candied fruits. Classically used for chocolate recipes 103)
Quararibea turbinata- Swizzlestick, the aromatic bark and stems are used to make sticks to stir cocktails giving a similar effect as adding a drop of bitters.

Quercus emoryi- Sweet acorn


Rhamnus prinoides- Gesho, Geso, Shiny Leaf Buckthorn, Hops Stem (not botanically related), A embittering spice used in Ethiopia to flavor Tej a honey wine.

Ricinodendron heudelotii- Mongongo, Njangsa, The oily seeds are ground to a paste used to flavor dishes across west and tropical Africa.

Rosa acicularis- Prickly rose, arctic rose
Rosa × alba-
Rosa bracteata-
Rosa canina- Dog rose
Rosa × centifolia- Rose de Mai
Rosa chinensis- China Rose
Rosa damascena- Rose
Rosa gallica- Apothecary rose
Rosa odorata- Tea Scented Rose, a Chinese species of rose used to make an aromatic tea.
Rosa majalis- Cinnamon rose
Rosa moschata- Musk rose
Rosa nutkana-Wild rose, Nootka rose, bristly rose
Rosa primula- Incense rose
Rosa rubiginosa- Sweet briar, petals used to make tea
Rosa rugosa- Japanese rose, Rugosa rose, beach rose, used to make petal jam for its intense fragrance.

Rumex acetosa- Sorrel
Rumex acetosella- Red sorrel
Rumex arcticus- Actic Dock
Rumex crispus- Curly dock, also high in oxalic acid.
Rumex hastatulus- Questionably edible, high in oxalic acid.
Rumex hymenosepalus-
Rumex maritimus-
Rumex obtusifolius- Bitter Dock
Rumex occidentalis- Western dock
Rumex patientia-
Rumex sagittatus- Rambling dock
Rumex scutatus- French Sorrel
Rumex spinosus-
Rumex venosus-

Ruta graveolens- Rue, leaves are bitter and unique tasting, berries are peppery, a notably underappreciated spice 104)
Ruta chalepensis- Fringed rue, Ethiopian rue, the leaves and berries are commonly used in Ethiopian cuisine 105)


Edible seaweed, every species of Saccharina is edible.
Saccharina japonica- kombu
Saccharina latissima- sugar kelp

Salicornia sp.- Glasswort, Pickle Weed, Marsh Samphire, (seemingly) all species can be ground into a salty vegital powder.

Salix aegyptiaca- Pussywillow, Persian Willow, flowers, leaves, and bark are used as flavoring. Flower water described as similar to rose or violet with a wintergreen note.

Salvia apiana- White Sage, Incense Sage
Salvia divinorum- Deviners Sage, Hallucinogenic but also used as a flavoring in liqueur.
Salvia fruticosa- Greek Sage, a common adulterant is sage seasoning mixes, often compared to common sage
Salvia hispanica- Chia
Salvia jurisicii- Stepp Sage, Macedonian Sage, Jurisic Sage, flavor profile is comparable to common sage.
Salvia officinalis- Sage, Garden sage, Common Sage
Salvia miltiorrhiza- Likely the leaves can be used as a spice 106)
Salvia pratensis- Meadow Clary, Meadow Sage
Salvia rosmarinus- Rosemary, recently changed name from Rosmarinus officinalis.
Salvia sclarea- Clary Sage
Salvia yangii- Perovskia Atriplicifolia, Russian Sage, used in salads and as a vodka flavor.

Sanguisorba canadensis- Canadian burnet
Sanguisorba minor- Salad Burnet, described as having a cucumber like flavor
Sanguisorba officinalis

Santalum acuminatum- Desert quandong, uniquely this species is not used for its wood but instead for its flavorful fruit and edible seeds which are used as nuts similar to spicatum.
Santalum album- The primary species of sandalwood, which most other species are compared. deeply woody-powdery.
Santalum austrocaledonicum- Dark, similar to Australian sandalwood but with musky overtones.
Santalum ellipticum- ʻIliahialoʻe, a species of Hawaiian sandalwood, considered the best sandalwood int he world, sweet and powdery.
Santalum fernandezianum- Chilean Sandalwood, believed extinct from over harvesting of its aromatic wood.
Santalum freycinetianum- ʻIliahi, a species of Hawaiian sandalwood, considered inferior to ellipticum.
Santalum spicatum- Australian sandalwood, My favorite species, darker, woodier, and wetter tasting, much rougher then album. The seeds are used as a nut.

Sassafras albidum- Sassafras

Satureja hortensis- Summer savory
Satureja thymbra- Savory of Crete, Roman Hyssop, sometimes considered the origin of the word Zaatar.
Satureja montana- Winter savory

Schinus molle- Peruvian pink pepper Tree, often called California pink pepper
Schinus terebinthifolius- Brazilian pink pepper tree, often called California pink pepper

Schisandra chinensis- Five flavor berry, 雞蛋花, fruits have an unusual sweet spicy flavor.

Sedum acre- goldmoss stonecrop, leaves have a large amount of piperidine in them.
Sedum divergens
Sedum reflexum- Reflexed stonecrop

Sesamum indicum- Sesame seeds.

Sinapis alba- White Mustard, one of two primary seed used to make mustard pastes.

Smilax aristolochiifolia- Mexican Sarsaparilla, Zarzaparilla, Cocolmeca, Alambrilla, described as sweet bitter
Smilax aspera- Mediterranean Sarsaparilla
Smilax china- Chinaroot, Chinese Sarsaparilla, used in Chinese medicine and as a flavorant.
Smilax glyciphylla- Sweet Sarsaparilla, Australian Sarsaparilla,
Smilax ornata- Sarsaparilla, Jamaican Sarsaparilla, Also called Smilax regelii, this is the most common form used in beverages around the world.

Smyrnium olusatrum- Alexanders, described as an intermediate between celery and parsley, the berries are notable as having a unique flavor similar to truffles 107)

Solanum centrale- Australian bush tomato

Sorghum bicolor- Massambala, Brooncorn, Karrir-corn, Leaves are used as a spice and red colorant in Ghana.

Stachys affinis- Chinese artichoke, Japanese artichoke, knotroot, roots are eaten, frequently picked as a garnish.
Stachys arvensis- Field Woundwort, Along with Stachys sylvatica was used by the romans for various medicinal uses.
Stachys byzantina- Lamb's-ear,
Stachys floridana- Florida Betony, used in a similar manner to Stachys affinis
Stachys officinalis- Common Hedgenettle, Betony, comes from a history of medicinal use, now sued to make teas.
Stachys palustris- Marsh Woundwort, used similar to Stachys arvensis, leaves are eaten as salad seasoning.
Stachys sylvatica- Hedge Woundwort, Whitespot

Stevia rebaudiana- Stevia, Sweetleaf, leaves contain the glycosides stevioside and rebaudioside which taste sweet.

Strobilanthes crispa- Likely edible and flavorful, described as peach like.
Strobilanthes menglaensis- Cha Tou herb, 糯米香, added to chinese tea to impart a buttery-pandan like flavor synonym of Semnostachya Menglaensis 108) 109) 110) Strobilanthes tonkinensis- May be the same species as menglaensis 111) 112)

Syzygium anisatum- Anise Myrtle, an Australian spice.
Syzygium aromaticum- Cloves, the flower buds, berries, bark and leaves all can be used for spices.
Syzygium polyanthum- Indonesian Bay Leaf,


Tagetes lucida- Mexican tarragon
Tagetes limonii-

Tamarindus indica- Tamarind

Tamarix ramosissima- Salt Cedar, Tamarck, A salty herbaceous powder can be made by grinding the dried leaves

Tanacetum annuum- Blue Tansy, rank and bitter in flavor, resembling many Artemisia species.
Tanacetum balsamita- Costmary, described as pungent and oregano like.
Tanacetum camphoratum- Camphor Tansy, Dune Tansy,
Tanacetum cinerariifolium- Contains pyrethroid, which causes contact dermatitis, edibility unknown.
Tanacetum parthenium- Feverfew, described as chamomile like.
Tanacetum vulgare- Tansy, Bitter Buttons, a bitter aster like flavor.

Tasmannia insipida- Brush Pepperbush,
Tasmannia lanceolata- Mountain Pepperbush, Tasmanian pepper, has safrole and Polygodial, which is a piquant compound
Tasmannia stipitata- Dorrigo Pepperbush, described as woody-cinnamon 113)
Tasmannia xerophila- Alpine Pepperbush

Teucrium canadense- American Germander, Canadian Germander,
Teucrium chamaedrys- Wall Germander, an important ingredient in Venice treacle.
Teucrium marum- Cat Thyme, Kitty Crack, this species is highly attractive to cats.
Teucrium polium- Felty Germander

Thelesperma filifolium- Navajo tea, stiff greenthread
Thelesperma megapotamicum- Navajo tea, rayless greenthread 114)

Thlaspi arvense- Penneycress, member of the mustard family, its leaves and seeds have a peppery-mustard flavor.

Thymbra capitatus- Conehead thyme, Persian Hyssop, Spanish Oregano
Thymbra spicata- Spike Thyme, also historically called Zaatar.

Thymus capitatus- Hyssop Thyme, historic records also call this the source of Zaatar.
Thymus × citriodorus- Lemon thyme
Thymus herba-barona- Caraway Thyme
Thymus pannonicus- Eurasian thyme, Hungarian thyme.
Thymus praecox- Creeping thyme
Thymus pulegioides- Lemon thyme, interestingly the lemon scented thyme is another species.
Thymus serpyllum- Serpolet, Breckland Thyme, the flowers are used for their strong scent.
Thymus thracicus- lavender thyme
Thymus vulgaris- Thyme, Common thyme
Thymus zygis- This species is the main source of Thyme essential oil, It has 4 chemotypes that have high quantities of thymol, linalool, carvacrol, and geraniol.

Torreya grandis- Chinese Nutmeg Yew, though in the yew subsection of conifers, it has edible seeds and arils that are described as nutmeg-bergamot like

Trachyspermum ammi- Ajwain, Thyme-Oregano like with a small amount of anise like flavor, very strong
Trachyspermum roxburghianum- Radhuni, a close relative to ajwain that is more parsley-celery like used in a similar manner.

Trigonella caerulea- Blue Fenugreek.
Trigonella foenum-graecum- Fenugreek

Tropaeolum majus- Nasturtium, all parts including seeds have a spicy horseradish/ mustard like flavor. Flowers are commonly used as a decoration for food.
Tropaeolum tuberosum- Mashua, The tubers are eaten as a starchy vegetable and retain some of the sharp characteristic flavor of the genus.

Turnera diffusa- described as spicy, fig like and also chamomile like. A relative of passionfruit from Mexico and southwestern united states


Umbellularia californica- California Bay, a unique an indispensable spice.


Valeriana celtica- Alpine Valerian, Spikenard Valerian, a highly aromatic valerian species from Italy and Austria, used in perfumery.
Valeriana edulis- Tobacco Root, Edible Valerian, its strongly scented roots are steamed for long periodsof time to mute the aroma and than eaten
Valeriana jatamansi- Indian Valerian, Chinese Valerian, also called Valeriana wallichii, this species is used as a replacement for Valerian essential oil.
Valeriana officinalis- Valerian, roots have a strong musky aroma and flavor
Valeriana sitchensis- Described as milder in scent than other species, the roots are eaten as an aromatic vegetable.

Valerianella locusta- Cornsalad, Mache, leaves have a unique musky nutty aroma and flavor, closely related to Valerian.

Vanilla planifolia- Common vanilla, the main species used commercially to make vanilla
Vanilla pompona- This is another species used to make commercial vanilla.
Vanilla odorata- unkown if this species makes pods that are flavorful, but it is present in the tahitensis cross.
Vanilla tahitensis- likely a cross between Vanilla planifolia and Vanilla odorata, names after Tahiti where it is commercially grown. 115)

Verbascum blattaria- Moth Mullein, described at having a strong menthol flavor
Verbascum phlomoides- Orange Mullein
Verbascum phoeniceum- Purple Mullein
Verbascum sinuatum- Scallop Leafed Mullein, The flowers are used to flavor aperitifs
Verbascum thapsus- Great Mullein, leaves and flowers used to flavor alcohol

Vertebrata lanosa- Icelandic Truffleweed, Wrack syphon weed, Dried and used as a spice that resmebles curry powder and truffles. 116)

Viburnum lentago var fragrans- Sweet vibernum, Nannyberry, the leaves have a woody violet like scent to them. 117)

Viola odorata- sweet violet, pansy, the flowers have an intense and unique floral flavor to them, the leaves have an intense earthy vegetal flavor.
Viola tricolor- wild pansy, leaves are like that of odorata, flowers have a more mellow vanilla like flavor.

Virola elongata- Virola, a spice related to nutmeg
Virola sebifera- Virola, a spice related to nutmeg

Vitex agnus-castus- Chaste, Vitex, Monksberry, this is another unique spice that is underappreciated.


Warburgia salutaris- Pepper bark, a South African species that is reported to taste similar to cinnamon but quite bitter.
Warburgia ugandensis- The leaves are used in Uganda to spice food, described as similar to curry leaves

Wasabia japonica- Wasabi, a member of the mustard family with a unique, easily perishable, spice made from the roots.

Wurfbainia villosa- Often mis-attributed as Amomum villosum. Called Xiang Sha Ren (香砂仁) in Chinese herbology. Is closer to the genus Alpinia then Amomum, and uniquely has ridged pods.


Xylopia aethiopica- Selim pepper, Grains of Selim
Xylopia striata- also called Selim, categorized by larger seed pods.

Xymalos monospora- Lemonwood, a relative to Boldo from southern Africa.



Zingiber barbatum- Meik-thalin
Zingiber cassumunar- Plai, the plai I have tried is mango like and very herbal, one other account calls it camphorous and spicy, which mine was not. 118) 119)
Zingiber montanum- Plai, this species may be different then the one I have, being described at camphorous and spicy. 120)
Zingiber mioga- Myoga, Yangha, Ranghe, the young flowers are eaten fresh and pickled, Exceptional and unique in flavor.
Zingiber officinale- Red Ginger.
Zingiber ottensii- Black Plai, questionably edible 121)
Zingiber spectabile- described as 'medicinal'
Zingiber zerumbet- Shampoo Ginger, Awapuhi, a Hawaiian ginger species whose flowers are used for perfumery. The bitter leaves and rhizomes are also used for spicing foods.

Zanthoxylum acanthopodium- Andaliman, batak
Zanthoxylum americanum- American Prickly Ash, Pepperwood, much like the Asian counterparts the fruits give a numbing sensation with complex citrus notes. 122)
Zanthoxylum armatum- Green Sichuan pepper, Timut, Timur
Zanthoxylum bungeanum- Red Sichuan pepper, prickly ash,
Zanthoxylum fagara- wild lime, unusual in that the powdered bark is used as a spice. 123)
Zanthoxylum gilletii- Uzazi sometimes also called Zanthoxylum tessmannii
Zanthoxylum piperitum- Sansho, Chopi, Japanese pepper
Zanthoxylum rhetsa- Teppal, Ma Khaen
Zanthoxylum schinifolium- Sancho, Korean pepper
Zanthoxylum simulans- Taiwan pepper

Ziziphora clinopodioides- Blue Mountain Mint, this species contains large amounts of pulegone in its essential oil, a toxic monoterpene, and it is not recommended for consumption. 124) 125)

Zygogynum howeanum- Hotbark

I need to sort out all the listings on this website!
does it have annonacin?
latin_alphabetical.txt · Last modified: 2024/02/17 03:01 by mete